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Once we can write text, the logical next step is to read it For example, we can modify the Hello, world! program to say hello to a specific person:
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// ask for a person's name, and greet the person #include <iostream> #include <string> int main() { // ask for the person's name std::cout << "Please enter your first name: "; // read the name std::string name; std::cin >> name;
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// define name // read into
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// write a greeting std::cout << "Hello, " << name << "!" << std::endl; return 0; }
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When we execute this program, it will write
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Please enter your first name:
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on the standard output If we respond, for example,
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Vladimir
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then the program will write
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Hello, Vladimir!
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Let's look at what's going on In order to read input, we must have a place to put it Such a place is called a variable A variable is an object that has a name An object, in turn, is a part of the computer's memory that has a type The distinction between objects and variables is important because, as we'll see in 322/45, 423/65, and 1061/183, it is possible to have objects that do not have names
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If we wish to use a variable, we must tell the implementation what name to give it and what type we want it to have The requirement to supply both a name and a type makes it easier for the implementation to generate efficient machine code for our programs The requirement also lets the compiler detect misspelled variable names-unless the misspelling happens to match one of the names that our program said it intended to use In this example, our variable is named name, and its type is std::string As we saw in 05/3 and 07/5, the use of std:: implies that the name, string, that follows it is part of the standard library, not part of the core language or of a nonstandard library As with every part of the standard library, std::string has an associated header, namely <string>, so we've added an appropriate #include directive to our program The first statement,
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std::cout << "Please enter your first name: ";
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should be familiar by now: It writes a message that asks for the user's name An important part of this statement is what isn't there, namely the std::endl manipulator Because we did not use std::endl, the output does not begin a new line after the program has written its message Instead, as soon as it has written the prompt, the computer waits-on the same line-for input The next statement,
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std::string name; // define name
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is a definition, which defines our variable named name that has type std::string Because this definition appears within a function body, name is a local variable, which exists only while the part of the program within the braces is executing As soon as the computer reaches the }, it destroys the variable name, and returns any memory that the variable occupied to the system for other uses The limited lifetime of local variables is one reason that it is important to distinguish between variables and other objects Implicit in the type of an object is its interface-the collection of operations that are possible on an object of that type By defining name as a variable (a named object) of type string, we are implicitly saying that we want to be able to do with name whatever the library says that we can do with strings One of those operations is to initialize the string Defining a string variable implicitly initializes it, because the standard library says that every string object starts out with a value We shall see shortly that we can supply a value of our own when we create a string If we do not do so, then the string starts out containing no characters at all We call such a string an empty or null string Once we have defined name, we execute
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