Integrating Multiple OSes in Java

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Integrating Multiple OSes
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Insecure operating systems are always a risk in network sharing. The Samba software is a free software package which implements Unix file semantics in terms of the Windows SMB (Server Message Block) protocols. Specialized hardware can be used to implement heterogeneous sharing. Network Appliance or Auspex intelligent servers can imitate Unix and NT file systems from a common server. Netware provides an NT client called NDS (Network Directory Services) for NT which allows NT domain servers to understand the Novell object directory model. Clearly, there is already file system compatibility between PC servers. Conversely, NT provides Netware clients, and other server products can be purchased to provide access to AS/400 mainframes. Both Novell and NT provide Macintosh clients, and Macintosh products can also talk to NT and Unix servers. GNU/Linux has made a valiant attempt to link up with most existing sharing protocols on Unix, PCs and Apple hosts. Mechanisms clearly exist to implement cross-platform sharing. The main question is, how easy are these systems to implement and maintain Are they worth the cost in time and money 6.7.2 User IDs and Passwords
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If we intend to implement sharing across such different operating systems as Unix and NT, we need to have common user names on both systems. Cross-platform user authentication is usually based on the understanding that user name text can be mapped across operating systems. Clearly, numerical user IDs and security IDs cannot map meaningfully between systems without some glue to match them: that glue is the user name. To achieve sharing, then, we must standardize user names. Unix-like systems often require user names to be no more than eight characters, so this is a good limit to keep to if Unix-like operating systems are involved or might become involved. Principle 29 (One name for one object II) Each user should have the same unique name on every host. Multiple names lead to confusion and mistaken identity. A unique user name makes it clear which user is responsible for which actions. Common passwords across multiple platforms is much harder than disk sharing, and it is a much more questionable practice (see below). 6.7.3 Authentication
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Making passwords work across different operating systems is often a pernicious problem in a scheme for complete integration. The password mechanisms for Unix and Windows are completely different and basically incompatible. The new Mac OS Server X is based on BSD4.3 emulation, so its integration with other Unix-like operation systems should be relatively painless. Windows, however, remains the odd one out. Whether or not it is correct to merge the password files of two separate operating systems is a matter for policy. The user bases of one operating system are often different from the user bases of another. From a security perspective, making access easy is not always the right thing to do. Owing to the cultural backgrounds of their user bases, Windows accounts are not always held in the same regard as Unix accounts. Windows provides the illusion of privacy, our own inviolable personal computer, whereas Unix feels more open and vulnerable.
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Passwords are incompatible between Windows and Unix for two reasons: NT passwords can be longer than Unix passwords, and the form of encryption used to store them is different. The encryption mechanisms which are used to store passwords are one way transformations, so it is not possible to convert one into the other. There is no escaping the fact that these systems are basically incompatible. A fairly recent development on the Unix side is Sun Microsystems' invention of Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM). GNU/Linux has adopted several features from SunOS recently, and also supports PAM. The PAM mechanism is a little-documented method of allowing the standard Unix password mechanism to be exchanged or supplemented by any number of other password mechanisms, simply by adding modules to a configuration file /etc/pam. conf. Instead of being prompted for a Unix password on login, users are connected to one or more password modules. Each module prompts for a password and grants security credentials if the password is correctly received. Thus, for instance, users could be immediately prompted for a Unix password, a Kerberos password and a DCE password on login, thus removing the necessity for a manual login to these extra systems later. PAM also supports the idea of mapped passwords, so that a single strong password can be used to trigger the automatic login to several stacked modules, each with its own private password stored in a PAM database. This is a very exciting possibility, mitigated only by a conspicuous lack of documentation about how to write modules for PAM. PAM could clearly help in the integration of Unix with Windows if a module for Windows style authentication could be written for Unix. At the present time, I am not aware of anyone who has accomplished such an integration, so we must wait in anticipation for the details of PAM to become sufficiently lucid as to make it a useful integration tool. 6.7.4 Samba
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Samba is a free software solution to the problem of making Unix file systems available to Windows operating systems. Windows NT uses a system of network file sharing based on their own SMB (Server Message Block) protocol. Samba is a Unix daemon-based service which makes Unix disks visible to Windows NT. Samba maps user names, so to use Samba we need an account with the same name on the NT server and on the Unix server. It maps user name textually, without much security. Samba configuration is in Unix style, by editing the text-file /etc/smb .conf. Here is an example file. Note carefully the 'hosts allow' line which restricts access to disks to specific IP addresses, like TCP wrappers. [global] printing = bsd printcap name = /etc/printcap load printers = yes guest account = nobody invalid users = root workgroup =UNIX hosts allow = 128.39. [homes] comment = Home Directories browseable = no read only = no create mode = 0644
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