MULTITIER WIRELESS CELLULAR NETWORKS in .NET

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MULTITIER WIRELESS CELLULAR NETWORKS
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parameters. TSC* = TSCmax m max 1 = TSCmax / 1 a1 = 3 2 0 /2 1 0 a2 = 3 2 2 /2 b1 = (3 + 2 3)V1 /9 1 b2 = (3 + 2 3)V2 /9 2 c = 2 3A/9 while (m min 1 m 1 m max 1 ) do R1 = c/ m 1
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h 1 = b1 /R1 while (1 C1 < C) do N1 = C 1 / f 1 N2 = (C C1 ) / f 2 PL (1) = for (k = 1;; k++) do m 2 = 1 + 3k(k + 1) TSC = 1 m 1 + 2 m 1 (m 2 1) if (TSC > TSC* ) then break R2 = R1 / m 2
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{[ 1 (1 + h 1 )]/[ 1 (1 + 9h 1 )]} N1 /N1 !
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h 2 = b2 /R2 PL (2) = PLT = {[ 2 (1 + h 2 )]/[ 2 (1 + 9h 2 )]} N2 /N2 !
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0 PL (1) + 0 PL (2) 1 2 0 + 0 1 2
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max max if (PLT < PLTmax ) and [PL (1) < PL (1)] and [PL (2) < PL (1)] then break
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end for
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if (TSC < TSC* ) then k=k m = m1 1 m = m2 2
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end if end while end while
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The outputs are: TSC , m , m , R1 , R2 , C1 and C2 . 1 2
17.3.2 Performance example To generate numerical results, a system with the parameters shown in Table 17.1 is used [21]. The performance of the two-tier system is compared with that of a one-tier system. To obtain results for a one-tier system the optimization algorithm with R1 = R2 was run. This results in both tiers sharing the same cells and m 2 = 1. The total cost is then computed as TSC = m 1 1 . Table 17.1 Example system parameters Parameter A C S 0 1 0 2 1 , 2 1 2 V1 V2 f1, f2 TSCmax PLTmax max PB (* ) max PD (* ) Value/range 100 90 2 0.23.0 5.040.0 0.33 10.0 1.0 30540 1.512.0 3 10 000 20 000 0.01 0.01 0.01 Units km2 Channels Calls/(min km2 ) Calls/(min km2 ) Calls/min $ (in 1000 s)/base $ (in 1000 s)/base km/h km/h $ (in 1000 s)
LOCAL MULTIPOINT DISTRIBUTION SERVICE
1200 Total system cost ($1000 s) 1000 One-tier system 800 600 400 Two-tier system 200 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Average tier 2 mobile speed (km/h)
Figure 17.12 Comparison of the total system costs between the one-tier and two-tier systems, 0 = 1[calls/(min km2 )] and 0 = 20[calls/(min km2 ).] 1 2 Figure 17.12 depicts the total system cost as a function of tier 2 mobile speed, while tier 1 mobile speed is xed for one-tier and a two-tier systems. The tier 1 mobile speeds considered are 30, 90, 180, 270, 360 and 540 km/h. The main conclusion from Figure 17.12 and many other similar runs [21] is that, for the parameter ranges used in this study, the two-tier system outperforms the single-tier system for all the values of the slower and faster mobile speeds.
17.4 LOCAL MULTIPOINT DISTRIBUTION SERVICE Wireless systems can establish area-wide coverage with the deployment of a single base station. The local multipoint distribution service (LMDS) offers a wireless method of access to broadband interactive services. The system architecture is considered point-to-multipoint since a centralized hub, or base station, simultaneously communicates with many xed subscribers in the vicinity of the hub. Multiple hubs are required to provide coverage over areas larger than a single cell. Because of the fragile propagation environment at 28 GHz, LMDS systems have small cells with a coverage radius on the order of a few kilometers. Digital LMDS systems can exibly allocate bandwidth across a wide range of bi-directional broadband services including telephony and high-speed data access. Multiple LMDS hubs are arranged in a cellular fashion to reuse the frequency spectrum many times in the service area. Complete frequency reuse in each cell of the system is attempted with alternating polarization in either adjacent cells or adjacent hub antenna sectors within the same cell. Subscriber antennas are highly directional with roughly a 9 inch diameter (30 35 dBi) to provide additional isolation from transmissions in adjacent cells and to reduce the received amount of multipath propagation that may cause signal degradation. Since cells are small and the entire spectrum is reused many times, the overall system capacity is quite high, and backhaul requirements can be large. Backhaul networks will probably be a combination of ber-optics and point-to-point radio links.