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21.3.6 High service rate of a session By summing up the normal delay, Equation (21.22), and the retransmission delay, Equation (21.23), of a newly arrived block, the SR calculator can calculate the total delay (TDe,k ) for a newly arrived block in a session k with a priority e. For simplicity it is assumed that the low service rate of a session when the MS is within a high-IF region is a prede ned value. The value of this low service rate can be chosen by a user application in accordance with the required characteristics of the media stream used in the application. For example, the low service rate can be assigned as the minimum tolerable decoding rate of a Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) video stream. If we assume that a session k with a priority e has a QoS speci cation for m block transmissions with air-interface delay bound De,k , then the SR calculator can calculate the high service rate of the session k with a priority e under the constraint of the inequality TDe,k De,k /m. Performance example The three algorithms are compared by simulation with the same parameters as in Yang et al. [45]. The results are shown in Figure 21.8.
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21.4 QoS IN OFDMA-BASED BROADBAND WIRELESS ACCESS SYSTEMS Vector orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (VOFDM) is considered as a base for BWA systems by the Broadband Wireless Internet Forum (BWIF) [1]. The BWA system is used with existing wireless LAN technologies such as IEEE802.11 (a, b) and IEEE 802.16 Group aims to unify the BWA solutions [56]. 802.16 Group issued standards in the 10 66 GHz bands and IEEE802.16a Group was formed to develop standards to operate in the 2 11 GHz bands in which channel impairments, multipath fading and path loss become more signi cant with the increase in the number of subscribers. System performance at high transmission rates depends on the ability of BWA system to provide ef cient and exible resource allocation. Recent studies [55,57] on resource allocation demonstrate that signi cant performance gains can be obtained if frequency hopping and adaptive modulation are used in subcarrier allocation, assuming knowledge of the channel gain in the transmitter. The resource allocation problem has been considered in many studies. Almost all of them de ne the problem as a real-time resource allocation problem in which QoS requirements are xed by the application. QoS requirement is de ned as achieving a speci ed data transmission rate and BER of each user in each transmission. In this regard, the problem differs from the water-feeling schemes wherein the aim is to achieve Shannon capacity under the power constraint [57]. Therefore, in this section we consider the problem where K users are involved in the OFDMA system to share N subcarriers. Each user allocates nonoverlapping set of subcarriers Sk where the number of subcarriers per user is J (k). In the following, X k (l) represents the lth subcarrier of the FFT block belonging to the kth user. X k (l) is obtained by coding the assigned c bits with the corresponding modulation scheme. In the downlink the X k (l) are multiplexed to form the OFDM symbol of length (N + L) with the appended guard
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18 16 14 Mean delay (timeslots) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 4.841 3.743 3.413 6.480 4.025 3.547 4.3679 3.765 4.729 3.831 5.130 3.929 10.214 SCFQ CIF-Q DSMC 16.823 14.899
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Figure 21.8 System performance. (Reproduced by permission of IEEE [45].) pre x L in order to eliminate ISI. At the uplink, the equivalent overall OFDM symbol (with a synchronization error) has the form x(l) =
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