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FIGURE 6.25 Percentage of nancial assets held as publicly traded stocks and
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market. As shown in Figure 6.26, capital raised by biotech companies peaked in 1983, 1986, 1992, 1996, and 2000, according to the Biotechnol ogy Industry Organization (BIO). Furthermore, the overall trend is in creased valuation over time. During the peak in 2000, 68 initial public offerings were completed by biotech companies in the United States, raising $5.4 billion. According to Nature Biotechnology, the average initial public offering proceeds was $85 million. In contrast with the boom of 2000, as of April 2003, the top 10 health and biotechnology funds, as ranked by Lipper, had a one-year re turn from a high of 1.83 to a low of 15.65. In addition, the bottom 10 health and biotechnology funds provided one-year returns ranging from a high of 30.64 to a low of 41.8. Despite the lackluster performance of biotech stocks in 2003, the trend displayed in Figure 6.27 suggests that there will continue to be cyclical peaks and troughs in biotech fund perfor mance, but with increasingly higher peaks.
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FIGURE 6.26 Number of biotech initial public offerings (IPOs) in the United
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Compared with the national expenditure of over $260 billion on research and development in 2002, the venture capital investment in biotech of less than $5 billion in the same year seems insigni cant. However, ven ture capital continues to play a vital role as an enabler of the biotech industry because it funds high-risk, long-time-horizon endeavors. Ac cording to the Carnegie Mellon Center for Economic Development and the PricewaterhouseCoopers/Thomson Venture Economics/National Ven ture Capital Association MoneyTree Survey, venture capital investment in biotech has risen steadily as a percentage of total venture capital fund ing since the peak in biotech venture capital funding in 2000, as shown in Figure 6.28. Biotech funding from venture capital peaked at approximately $6 bil lion in 2000, following nearly two decades of increased funding. Although the nearly 8 percent decline in venture capital funding in 2001 was signi cant, it was much less severe than the 61 percent decline in total venture capital investment in the United States. At the end of 2002, the biotech in
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FIGURE 6.27 Capital raised by public biotech companies in the United States,
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dustry ranked fourth overall in U.S. venture capital investing, behind soft ware, telecommunications, and medical devices and equipment. According to VentureWire, 82 percent of venture capital investment in biotech in 2002 was awarded to drug development companies, with the re maining 16 percent of investment split about equally between companies offering informatics services and computer-based tools for drug discovery. Furthermore, the top U.S. markets for venture capital funding from 1991 to 2001 were, in order, Boston, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Oak land, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, Philadelphia, and Orange County, as reported by the Carnegie Mellon Center for Economic Development. The MoneyTree survey reveals that although there were only seven biotech IPOs in 2002, they represented 32 percent of all venture-backed IPOs that year. As shown in Figure 6.29, this gure compares to 9 venturebacked IPOs in 1998, and 56 venture capital-backed IPOs in 2000. Even though there was a precipitous drop in the number of venture-backed
6 20 VC Biotech Funding ($B) 5 4 3 2 5 1 0 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02
0 15 Percentage of All VC Funding
FIGURE 6.28 Venture capital investment in biotech companies in the United
States and percentage of biotech funding relative to all venture capital funding,
1982 2002.
Sources: Carnegie Mellon Center for Economic Development and PwC/TVE/NVCA
MoneyTree Survey
biotech IPOs after 2000, the percentage of total IPOs increased from 1999 through 2002. The growth or decline in the number of biotech companies receiving venture capital nancing parallels the trend in the level of funding for the industry. For example, the number of biotech companies receiving rst round nancing declined 29 percent from 1998 to 2002, and the industry as a whole dropped 62 percent during the same period. Follow-on nanc ing grew from $2.1 billion in 1998 to $3.7 billion in 2002, according to the MoneyTree survey. Figure 6.30 shows the venture capital disbursement in the United States by stage of nancing from 1995 through 2002, based on the Mon eyTree survey results. In general, there has been relatively little interest in startups. Seed/startup stage disbursements, which go to biotech compa nies that have a concept or product under development, but that are prob ably not fully operational, have followed a declining trend since the