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1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
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FIGURE 6.9 Investment in developing countries from Foreign Direct Investment
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(FDI) and Worker s Remittance (Remittance), 1990 2002.
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Source: The World Bank
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early 1990s and has uctuated signi cantly since then. The level of aid is typically less than half of that provided by workers remittance. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United States and Saudi Arabia are the largest sources of workers remittance, as shown in Figure 6.10. In 2001, the United States accounted for over $28 billion of workers remittance in 2001, or almost half of the worldwide to tal. Saudi Arabia contributed over $15 billion of remittance, or about half of that contributed by the United States. Germany, Belgium, and Switzer land contribute the bulk of the remaining remittance, at about $8 billion per country. France, Luxembourg, Israel, Italy, and Japan each contributed between approximately $2 billion and $4 billion in 2001. According to the World Bank, the top recipients of workers remit tance are India and Mexico. Each received about $10 billion in 2001, as shown in Figure 6.11. The Philippines received $6.4 billion of remittance, while Morocco, Egypt, the Arab Republic, Turkey, Lebanon, Bangladesh, Jordan, and the Dominican Republic each received between about $2 bil
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United States Saudi Arabia Germany Belgium Switzerland France Luxembourg Israel Italy Japan 0
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FIGURE 6.10 Top 10 country sources of workers remittance, 2001.
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Source: IMF
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lion and $3 billion. Together, these top 10 countries accounted for 60 per cent of the total workers remittances worldwide and nearly 75 percent of the foreign direct investment received by developing countries. The ow of workers remittance into developing countries has a sec ondary effect of attracting foreign direct investment. For example, consider Mexico s receipt of foreign investment in 2001, the same year in which Mex ico received $9.9 billion in workers remittance. In that year, the largest bank in the United States, Citigroup, acquired the second largest bank in Mexico, Banamex, for $12.5 billion. Similarly, in 2002, the Bank of Amer ica paid Santander $1.6 billion for a quarter of Ser n, the third largest bank in Mexico. Foreign investment in nancing research and development in biotech and other areas isn t limited to developing countries, but also constitutes a substantial percentage of nancing for research and development in the more developed countries. For example, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the proportion of in dustrial research and development nanced by foreign sources for Canada,
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FIGURE 6.11 Top 10 country recipients of workers remittance, 2001.
Source: The World Bank
the United Kingdom, Russia, France, Italy, and Germany was signi cant through the 1980s and 1990s. In particular, in Canada and the United Kingdom foreign investment exceeded 20 percent of industrial nancing for R&D in the late 1990s (see Figure 6.12). Of the G-8 countries, only the United States and Japan received negligible foreign investment.
The source of nancing for biotech research and development in the United States is representative of most of the developed countries. Industry and the government provide the bulk of nancing, followed by universities, col leges, and other nonpro t institutions that provide the balance. The distri bution of nancing for all research and development in the United States for 2002, based on statistics from the National Science Foundation, is shown in Figure 6.13. Of the $292 billion generated for research and development in the United States during 2002, about 66 percent of the funding was supplied
U.K. Canada Russia France Italy
Germany Japan U.S.
1981 1999.
Source: OECD
FIGURE 6.12 Proportion of industrial R&D nanced by foreign capital,
by industry. The government provided the majority of the remaining funds, amounting to nearly 28 percent of total research and develop ment budget. Universities generated nearly 3.5 percent of nancing, while the remaining 2.5 percent of funding was contributed by nonpro t organizations. Although the United States may not be a host for foreign investment in industrial research and development, it is a major power in terms of re search and development. Figure 6.14 shows research and development ex penditure as a percentage of GDP in the United States from 1955 to 2002, along with the relative contribution of government and industry nancing. This trend of diminishing government funding of research and develop ment and a concomitant shift to industry nancing is representative of nancing in most G-8 countries, including Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Of the G-8 countries, only the governments