Figure 6-3: Network layout with Class C non-routable addresses in .NET

Render code-128c in .NET Figure 6-3: Network layout with Class C non-routable addresses
Figure 6-3: Network layout with Class C non-routable addresses
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6 Understanding Your Linux Network
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You can use any network layout you feel comfortable with, but you should always use a pen and paper to design the logical layout before even touching a network cable. Any mistakes in the early stages of designing a network will come back to haunt you as your network grows.
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If you need more granular control over your network layout, subnetting allows you to break the mold of the class-based IP address schemes. Subnetting is a classless addressing methodology that allows you to choose your own network mask (subnet mask). In the traditional class-based network, you would have a strict amount of hosts in a network. With subnetting, you can specify multiple networks, sacrificing the amount of available hosts. We will use the network 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0 (IP address/network mask) and subnet this down further.
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Note The notation of IP/netmask is a common one in networking circles, but a more shorthand version is 192.168.0.0/16. The 16 is the number of bits used in the network mask.
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Whereas with a class-based network, you would have a single network, 192.168.0.0, and 253 available hosts, you can specify multiple networks by using a subnetwork mask. Figure 6-4 shows how the number 248 is represented in binary. The binary number system is capable of representing any number using a combination of 0s and 1s, and this should be apparent in the figure. Anywhere that a 1 is present signifies that this number should be added to the overall decimal number represented by binary.
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Figure 6-4: Binary representation As each octet is represented in its barest form as a binary number, you can make a comparison of a network mask to a subnet mask. You can see in Figure 6-5 that a subnet mask is, in fact, a further extension of the network mask at the sacrifice of the host portion of the IP address. We are using four bits of the host address, which takes the amount of hosts in a Class C address (253) down to 14 per network (of which there can be 14 networks). If you correlate the bits in the new subnet mask to a decimal number, you can see that the network mask of the subnetted network is 192.168.0.240. Subnetting is something that we have not come across that often in the real world, as the class-based network design is usually enough to represent a logical network layout. Most small/medium organizations are capable of splitting their departments into a rough estimation of the IP class system. In larger organizations, you will find that classless IP addressing is quite common, although such organizations usually limit the network based on an IP network alignment that is, a traditional non-routable Class A network is subnetted down with a Class C subnet mask.
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Part II The SUSE System
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Figure 6-5: Comparison of a network and subnet mask One thing that you should take away from this discussion of subnetting is that it is controlled on a local level. The Internet routers rarely know about how an administrator has subnetted a network because there is no way to propagate this information about the network to the whole Internet.
Note CIDR is an exception to this rule. CIDR is Classless Interdomain Routing, and this is an interim solution to the lack of IPv4 addresses that are available. CIDR is a group of subnetted addresses that are controlled by larger organizations and have been registered by ISPs as being a domain of control. This is further subnetted by the ISP to provide a larger number of IP networks, but a lower number of hosts. Usually if you ask your ISP for a few routable IP addresses, they will give you a subnet mask as opposed to a network mask. It is up to the ISP to distinguish between the standard class-based system and the classless addressing scheme. It is unlikely that an organization would need 253 routable addresses, so ISPs can split their allocation of public addresses down to the 4 or 8 addresses that you really need.