The complete set of use cases for the HomeDirect system is documented in in Java

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The complete set of use cases for the HomeDirect system is documented in
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Use Case Diagrams
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In the UML, actors are represented by a stick figure, and use cases are shown as ellipses A use case diagram simply shows the structural relationships between the actors and the use cases, not the dynamic relationships The relationship between actors and use cases is shown via a directional association indicating the source of invocation Figure 7 - 1 shows the Browse account and Transfer funds use cases for the HomeDirect system Both are invoked by the customer
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Figure 7-1 A simple use case diagram
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Use Case Relationships
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You may recall that we decided that login and logout do not meet the litmus test of being use cases because they do not provide something of value to the customer They are really part of the various HomeDirect use cases, such as Browse account balances and Transfer funds So, we somehow have to reuse the sequence of events required for login and logout
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The UML notation provides "include" and "extend" relationships, which can be used to model such reuse within use cases
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Include
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An include relationship allows you to capture a common piece of functionality in a separate use case, and then "include" the use case in another use case via the include relationship The include relationship is shown as a dependency relationship stereotyped as <<include>> See
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Figure 7 - 2
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Figure 7-2 An example of an include relationship
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Extend
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An extend relationship allows you to model optional behavior for a use case That is, you can capture some behavior in a separate use case and, within another use case, indicate the exact points (called extension points) where the separate use case may optionally be invoked as part of the use case An extend relationship is modeled as a dependency and stereotyped as <<extend>> See Figure 7 - 3
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Figure 7-3 An example of an extend relationship
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Figure 7 -4
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shows another, more detailed use case diagram for the Browse account balances and
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List transactions use cases for the HomeDirect system
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Figure 7-4 Use case relationships for HomeDirect
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16
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provides a complete use case model for the HomeDirect case study
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Typical problems encountered by those new to use cases revolve around the following:
Creating use cases that are too coarse-grained For instance, "Process order" may be too coarse if it represents "Create new order," "Submit order," and "Change o rder" from the user's perspective
Creating use cases that are too fine-grained Continuing with the preceding order example, "Change zip code for order," might be an example of a fine-grained use case
Writing the use cases from a system perspective For example, "Obtain catalog from database" versus "Browse catalog"
Getting bogged down in extend versus include relationships An extend relationship can easily be expressed as an include relationship, so choose one, and move on
Getting carried away with use case and actor generalizations Neither is essential, at least not initially Keep in mind that you can always add an actor or use case generalization later in a subsequent iteration once you understand the details better
Sequence Diagrams
A use case is still very much a textual description and is subject to interpre tation A sequence diagram is used to express the use case in more precise, technical terminology This is achieved by depicting the use case in terms of interaction between the actor and the system
A sequence diagram is a type of interaction diagram in the UML The other kind of interaction diagram is called a collaboration diagram Sequence diagrams capture a specific scenario, with a use case typically consisting of one or more scenarios (for example, main workflow and alternate workflows) The emphasis in a sequence diagram is on the time ordering of the interaction Thus, the vertical axis represents the time dimension in a sequence diagram
A sequence diagram utilizes the description of a use case Figure 7 -5 shows a sequence diagram for the Transfer funds use case discussed earlier To create a sequence diagram, each step from the textual description for the use case is placed o n the left side Two vertical lines are used to show the lifeline of the actor and the system The actor is represented by the actor stick figure symbol, and the system is simply shown as a rectangle