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Table 10.4 (continued)
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if(temp32b <= L_deposit_h(200)) temp32b = L_deposit_h(200); // Detect speech activity at far end if(dt->farInPowS > temp32b) // temp32b = thresFar { // Declare far-end speech dt->farFlag = 1; // Set hangover time counter dt->farHangCount = HANGOVER_TIME; } else { if (dt->farHangCount-- < 0) // Decrement hangover counter { dt->farFlag = 0; dt->farHangCount = 0; // Hangover counter expired } }
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Procedures of the experiment are listed as follows: 1. Build, load, and run the experiment program. 2. The acoustic echo canceler output is saved in the le named aecout.pcm. 3. Use the CCS graph tool to plot the adaptive lter coef cients, w, of length 512, as shown in Figure 10.28. 4. With the same inputs as shown in Figure 10.27(a) and (b), the processed output by this xed-point acoustic echo canceler is shown in Figure 10.29. Further experiments include writing assembly programs to replace the intrinsics used in this experiment, and modifying the xed-point C code to create an adaptive echo canceler using assembly program.
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10.7.4 Experiment of Delay Estimation
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This experiment uses the MATLAB scripts exp10_7_4.m to nd the echo delay based on the crosscorrelation method. The program is listed in Table 10.5. The MATLAB function xcorr(x,y, 'biased') is used to calculate the crosscorrelation between the vectors x and y. In this experiment, we use auco8khz.txt as the far-end data (y vector), delay it by 200 samples, and copy it as the near-end data (x vector). The crosscorrelation between the vectors x and y is returned to crossxy. The MATLAB function max( ) is used to nd the maximum value m in the array, which represents the delay between the far-end and near-end signals. The les used for this experiment are listed in Table 10.6, and procedures of the experiment are listed as follows: 1. Running the script, the delay value is estimated and printed as The maximum corssXY(m). This simple technique works well for estimating a pure delay in noise-free environment. 2. In real applications with noises and multiple echoes, more complicated methods discussed in Section 10.3.2 are needed. The crosscorrelation function is shown in Figure 10.30.
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Figure 10.29 Table 10.5 The error signal of xed-point AEC output
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% Open data files fid1 = fopen('.//data//rtfar.pcm', 'rb'); fid2 = fopen('.//data//rtmic.pcm', 'rb'); % Read data files x = fread(fid1, 'int16'); y = fread(fid2, 'int16'); % crossxy(m) = cxy(m-N), m=1, ..., 2N-1 crossxy = xcorr(x(1:800),y(1:800),'biased'); len=size(crossxy); % Only half = cxy(m-N), m=1, ...
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Table 10.5 xy = abs(crossxy(((len-1)/2+1):len)); % Find max in xy [ampxy,posxy]=max(xy);
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plot(xy),; title('Crosscorelation between x and y'); xlabel('Time at 8000 Hz sampling rate'); ylabel('Crosscorrelation'); text(posxy-1,ampxy,... '\bullet\leftarrow\fontname{times} CorossXY(m) = MAXIMUM', 'FontSize',12) disp(sprintf('The maximum corssXY(m) found at %d with value =%d \n', posxy-1,ampxy)); fclose(fid1); fclose(fid2);
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Table 10.6 Files
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File listing for experiment exp10.7.4_delayDetect Description MATLAB experiment program Data le for far-end signal Data le for near-end signal
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delayDetect.m rtfar.pcm rtmic.pcm
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Crosscorrelation between x and y 2500 CrossXY(m) = MAXIMUM 2000
300 400 500 Time at 8000 Hz sampling rate
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[1] S. M. Kuo and D. R. Morgan, Active Noise Control Systems Algorithms and DSP Implementations, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996. [2] W. Tian and A. Alvarez, Echo canceller and method of canceling echo, World Intellectual Property Organization, Patent WO 02/093774 A1, Nov. 2002. [3] W. Tian and Y. Lu, System and method for comfort noise generation, US Patent no. 6 766 020 B1, July 2004. [4] Y. Lu, R. Fowler, W. Tian, and L. Thompson, Enhancing echo cancellation via estimation of delay, IEEE Trans. Signal. Process., vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 4159 4168, Nov. 2005. [5] D. L. Duttweiler, A twelve-channel digital echo canceller, IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. COM-26, pp. 647 653, May 1978. [6] D. L. Duttweiler and Y. S. Chen, A single-chip VLSI echo canceller, Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 59, pp. 149 160, Feb. 1980. [7] K. Eneman and M. Moonen, Filterbank constrains for subband and frequency-domain adaptive lters, Proc. IEEE ASSP Workshop, New Paltz, NY: Mohonk Mountain House, Oct. 1997. [8] Math Works, Inc.,Using MATLAB, Version 6, 2000. [9] Math Works, Inc.,MATLAB Reference Guide, 1992. [10] Analog Devices, Digital Signal Processing Applications Using the ADSP-2100 Family, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. [11] C. W. K. Gritton and D. W. Lin, Echo cancellation algorithms IEEE ASSP Mag., pp. 30 38, Apr. 1984. [12] CCITT Recommendation G.165, Echo Cancellers, 1984. [13] M. M. Sondhi and D. A. Berkley, Silencing echoes on the telephone network, Proc. IEEE, vol. 68, pp. 948 963, Aug. 1980. [14] M. M. Sondhi and W. Kellermann, Adaptive echo cancellation for speech signals, in Advances in Speech Signal Processing, S. Furui and M. Sondhi, Eds., New York: Marcel Dekker, 1992, Chap. 11. [15] Texas Instruments, Inc., Acoustic Echo Cancellation Software for Hands-Free Wireless Systems, Literature no. SPRA162, 1997 [16] Texas Instruments, Inc., Echo Cancellation S/W for TMS320C54x, Literature no. BPRA054, 1997 [17] Texas Instruments, Inc., Implementing a Line-Echo Canceller Using Block Update & NLMS Algorithms- C54x, Literature no. SPRA188, 1997 [18] ITU-T Recommendation G.167, Acoustic Echo Controllers, Mar. 1993. [19] ITU-T Recommendation G.168, Digital Network Echo Cancellers, 2000.