Test 15: Oral Comprehension in .NET

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Test 15: Oral Comprehension
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Identifying a missing key word that makes sense in an oral passage Identifying and correcting errors in written passages Reading words and supplying appropriate meanings
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Test 16: Editing
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Test 17: Reading Vocabulary
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Test 18: Quantitative Concepts
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Identifying math terms and formulae Identifying number patterns Responding to questions about science, social studies, and humanities
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Test 19: Academic Knowledge
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Test 20: Spelling of Sounds
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Reading & Writing (Grw) Auditory Processing (Ga) Auditory Processing (Ga) Reading & Writing (Grw)
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Letter combinations that are regular patterns in written English Providing rhyming words, removing, substituting, and reversing parts of words to make new words Applying punctuation and capitalization rules
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Test 21: Sound Awareness
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Copyright 2001 by The Riverside Publishing Company. Adapted from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III ) by Richard W. Woodcock, Kevin S. McGrew and Nancy Mather, with permission of the publisher. All rights reserved.
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THE WOODCOCK-JOHNSON BATTERY THIRD EDITION (WJ III)
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INTERPRETIVE FEATURES OF THE WJ III
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As a comprehensive co-normed battery, the WJ III provides a wide array of interpretive features, some not typically available in other test batteries. Four levels of interpretive information are available for the tests and clusters. While each of the four levels provides unique information about the person s test performance, the levels of information cannot be used interchangeably. Table 14.6 provides a summary of the levels of interpretation available on the WJ III. At Level One, qualitative aspects of the subject s performance are noted, including test session observations and error pattern analysis. Level Two provides information from the raw scores about the individual s stage or level of development. At
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Level Three, the quality of a person s performance on criterion tasks at different difficulty levels is indicated. Normative comparisons to peers in the standardization sample are available at Level Four. Both age- and grade-based norms are available. Grade norms are available for students in Grades K through 12, two-year colleges, and four-year colleges, including graduate school. Age norms are available for individuals age two through 95+. While the age and grade equivalents are not affected by selection of age or grade-based norms, relative proficiency index, standard score, and percentile rank are affected by an examiner s choice of norms. While the decision of which norms should be used is left to the examiner, if age norms are used to score the WJ III ACH, then age norms also should be used to score the WJ III COG and vice versa.
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TABLE 14.6 Level of interpretive information available on the WJ III
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Level 1 Type of Information Qualitative (Criterion-Referenced) Basis Observation during testing and analysis of responses Information & Scores Description of the subject s reaction to the test situation Performance on finely defined skills at the item content level Raw Score Rasch Ability Score (W Score) Age Equivalent (AE) Grade Equivalent (GE) Quality of performance on reference tasks Rasch Difference score Relative Proficiency Index (RPI) CALP Level Developmental or Instructional Zone Rank Order Standard Score (SS) (including T score, z score, NCE, Discrepancy SD DIFF) Percentile Rank (PR) (including Discrepancy PR)
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Level of Development (Norm-Referenced)
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Sum of item scores Age or grade level in the norming sample at which the average is the same as the subject s score Subject s distance on a Rasch scale from an age or grade reference point
Proficiency (Criterion-Referenced)
Relative Standing in a Group (Norm-Referenced)
Relative position (a transformation of a difference score, such as dividing by the standard deviation of the reference group)
Copyright 2001 by The Riverside Publishing Company. Adapted from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III my Richard W. ) Woodcock, Kevin S. McGrew and Nancy Mather, with permission of the publisher. All rights reserved.
PART V
ADDITIONAL MEASURES OF ADOLESCENT AND ADULT IQ
Types of Scores
A variety of scores are provided by the WJ III, including age and grade equivalents, relative proficiency indexes (RPI), cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) levels, percentile ranks, and standard scores. It is not possible to obtain any derived scores by hand except estimated age and grade equivalents. All scores are obtained through the use of the WJ III Compuscore and Profiles Program (Schrank & Woodcock, 2001). The program provides a number of special and unique features that would not be possible if scoring were done by hand. Several of the scores provided on the WJ III are discussed below. W Score All raw scores are converted to W scores, which are a special transformation of the Rasch ability scale (Rasch, 1960; Wright & Stone, 1979). The equal interval properties of the W scale make it a useful intermediate step in test interpretation and for measuring growth. The W scale for each test is centered on a value of 500 (the approximate average performance of a ten-year-old). Cluster scores are the average of the W scores for the individual tests in the cluster (Mather & Woodcock, 2001). Age and Grade Equivalents The WJ III provides both age (AE) and grade equivalent (GE) scores. An AE or GE reflects the subject s performance in terms of the age or grade level in the norming sample at which the median score is the same as the subject s score. The WJ III AE and GE scores have advantages over AE or GE scores reported on many other test batteries. One frequently cited criticism of grade (or age) scores is that they are not useful for instructional planning because they do not reflect the student s ability. It is not always recognized that this common criticism of GE s applies to tests that are composed primarily of items with a limited range of difficulty, such as the multilevel tests of many group achievement batteries. For example, if a
third-grade student earns a grade equivalent of 6.5 on a test that is designed for students in grade 3, it does not mean that the student will be successful on tasks associated with the mid-sixthgrade level. Rather, it means that the student got a high percentage of the items on a third-grade test correct, the same percentage of items correct that an average sixth-grade student received. In this case, the student s score is a reflection more of the student s accuracy than of the grade level of task difficulty that this student can perform. The just say no to grade equivalents mantra does not apply when test items are: (1) distributed uniformly over a wide range of difficulty, (2) when individuals are administered the subset of items centered on their level of ability, and (3) when the test has been normed on an appropriately selected sample of individuals across a wide grade range (McGrew et al., 1991). The latter three conditions characterize the WJ III AE and GE scores. The WJ III AE and GE scores do, in fact, reflect the level of task difficulty an individual can perform and thus may be useful in instructional planning. Relative Proficiency Index The relative proficiency index (RPI), formerly called the RMI (relative mastery index) on the WJ-R, is a valuable score in better understanding a subject s quality of performance relative to peers in the normative sample. The score reads like the index used with Snellen charts to describe visual acuity. A 90 is always written in the denominator. An RPI score of 90/90 means that the subject demonstrated 90% proficiency on tasks where the average person in the comparison group (same age or grade) would also obtain 90%. The Developmental Zone (called the Instructional Zone on the WJ III ACH), is a special application of the RPI provided to help understand the subject s range of functioning on tasks from easy (independent level) to difficult (frustration level). The Developmental and Instructional Zone profiles are printed when using the Compuscore and Profiles Program.
THE WOODCOCK-JOHNSON BATTERY THIRD EDITION (WJ III)
CALP Levels Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) is described by Cummins (1984) as language used in academic situations and those that result from formal schooling. A CALP level can be reported for both the WJ III COG, using the Verbal Ability clusters, and the WJ III ACH, using the Academic Knowledge cluster and several oral and written language tests and clusters. The availability of this CALP score is valuable for examiners working with students who are non-native English speakers. The five CALP levels (1 = Negligible to 5 = Advanced) provide examiners with information useful in describing English language proficiency in academic settings. These levels also may provide information to help a nonbilingual examiner make informed referrals for evaluation by a bilingual evaluator. Percentile Rank Percentile ranks are provided for all tests and clusters. They are useful in describing the person s relative standing in the population. A unique feature of the WJ III percentile ranks is the extended percentile ranks at the upper and lower ends of the scale. The extension of the scale adds approximately one and one-half standard deviation units to the range of the traditional percentile rank scale. Standard Score The standard score scale for the WJ III is based on a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. The standard score is the score most commonly reported in clinical practice. The WJ III provides standard scores from 1 to greater than 200. In addition, the Compuscore and Profiles Program provides an option to select a z-score, T-score, NCE, or stanine.
plot the Age/Grade Profile or the Standard Score/ Percentile Rank Profile. These profiles provide a visual display of the person s Developmental Zone for the WJ III COG (called Instructional Zone on the WJ III ACH) and normative comparisons. The Age/Grade Profile is particularly useful when the examiner needs to explain the person s test performance for instructional planning. The left end of the shaded zone on a graphic bar represents the age or grade level where the subject would perceive the tasks as easy (RPI = 96/90). The right end of the zone represents the age or grade level at which the subject would perceive the tasks as difficult (RPI = 75/ 90). An easy level represents a person s independent level for instructional purposes while the difficult level would represent the frustration level. The width of the band will vary, as some zones will appear narrow while others appear wide. The width of the band reflects how rapidly or slowly the underlying skill or ability changes over age or grade (see section on WJ III CHC growth curves later in this chapter). A wide band reflects a slow rate of change while a narrow band indicates a rapid rate of change over time. The Standard Score/Percentile Rank Profile provides a plot of the confidence band surrounding the standard score and percentile for a given test and/or cluster. The confidence band represents the region within which the subject s true score on a test or cluster most likely falls. The software program provides for the option to select three different levels of confidence (68%, 90%, 95%). The 68% confidence interval is recommended for profile interpretation. While statistical procedures are available to interpret differences in scores, guidelines are provided that allow for a visual interpretation of the display.