V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH in .NET

Implement ANSI/AIM Code 128 in .NET V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH
V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH
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dexes may provide the most useful information for understanding the cognitive abilities for most adolescents or adults with learning disabilities. These factors offer a purer measure of crystallized ability (Verbal Comprehension Index) than is available via the V-IQ, an amalgamation of verbal conceptual and memory tasks. In samples of college students with learning disabilities, the P > V pattern has not been consistently found. College students more typically evidence the opposite pattern of V > P or have no V P difference (Blalock, 1987; Gregg & Hoy, 1985; Kaufman, 1990; Morgan, Sullivan, Darden, & Gregg, 1997; Rogan & Hartman, 1976; Salvia, Gajar, Gajria, & Salvia, 1988; Sparks & Javorsky, 1999; Sparks, Philips, Ganschow, & Javorsky, 1999; Vogel, 1986). When college students with learning disabilities display V > P patterns, the discrepancies are typically small, about 4 5 points (Slate, Frost, & Cross, 1990, 1991). The Verbal scale does measure achievement (crystallized abilities), and college students, even if learning disabled, have managed to achieve reasonably well. This achievement may be facilitated by compensatory strategies that have allowed the students to succeed educationally despite their disabilities. One study indicated that the attributes of self-awareness, proactivity, perseverance, emotional stability, goal setting, and the use of effective support systems are more predictive of the success of individuals with learning disabilities in adulthood than are either academic skills or IQ (Raskind, Goldberg, Higgins, & Herman, 1999). In another study of college students with learning disabilities, Cowles and Keim (1995) found that the longer students participated in special support services and the higher their IQs, the more likely they were to graduate from college (although it took the students with learning disabilities about a semester longer to graduate). Lefly and Pennington (1991) found that, in their sample of adult dyslexics, it was the automaticity with which dyslexics applied their reading skills, rather than their IQs or academic achievement, per se, that predicts whether
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they are able to compensate for their learning difficulties. Review of Research Findings on the P > V Profile Because of the lack of consistency of a P > V profile in college students with learning disabilities, we focus here on individuals not in college. Learning-disabled adolescents (ages 13 18) tested on the relevant Wechsler scale displayed P > V profiles whether they were classified as delinquent (N = 25) or nondelinquent (N = 25); they outperformed the matched normal control group on the Performance Scale (Sobotowicz, Evans, & Laughlin, 1987). Similarly, McCue, Shelly, and Goldstein (1986) evaluated 75 male and 25 female learning-disabled adults (mean age = 24 years) referred for assessment by a state vocational rehabilitation agency and found a WAIS P-IQ superiority of 5 points (V-IQ = 87, P-IQ = 92). Frauenheim and Heckerl (1983) tested 11 severely dyslexic adults on the WAIS-R at ages 25 30 (mean = 27) who had been previously diagnosed at age 10 1 2. As children, they scored 21 points higher on the Performance Scale (WISC V-IQ = 84, P-IQ = 105); more than 15 years later, they earned almost identical mean scores on the WAIS-R (V-IQ = 85; P-IQ = 104) for a P > V discrepancy of 19 points as adults. Similarly, 30 learning adolescents with learning disabilities, ages 16 17, had a P > V profile on both the WAIS-R (V-IQ = 91; P-IQ = 102) and WISC-R (V-IQ = 90; P-IQ = 105), but these discrepancies of 11 and 15 points, respectively (Sandoval, Sassenrath, & Penaloza, 1988), may have been inflated to some extent by the fact that 60% of the sample was Hispanic. Gold and Horn (1983) administered the WAIS to male inmates identified as illiterates. They divided their sample into low, medium, and high groups (mean FS-IQs of 70, 78, and 86, respectively), with sample sizes of about 13 per subsample. Each IQ group had P > V profiles ranging from 7 to 11 points. A small P > V discrepancy of
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