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NOTE: A-A = African American (N = 279); H = Hispanic (N = 181); W = white (N = 1,925); loadings of .30 or above are bolded. From Assessing adult intelligence with
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TABLE 7.8
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Coefficients of congruence for the WAIS-III factors obtained for three ethnic groups African Americans and Hispanics .97 .90 .91 .94 African Americans and Whites .99 .96 .99 .97 Hispanics and Whites .99 .97 .93 .96
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WAIS-III Index Verbal Comprehension Perceptual Organization Working Memory Processing Speed
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NOTE: These coefficients are based on the oblique-rotated four-factor solution presented by Tulsky et al. (in press). (See Table 7.7.)
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Performance (i.e., a blend of Perceptual Organization and Processing Speed). Another finding for the oldest group is that a five-factor solution had a slightly better fit than a four-factor solution. The five-factor solution was identical to the four-factor solution except for Arithmetic, which was placed on its own factor (labeled Quantitative). The slightly better fit for the five-factor solution was not significantly better than the four-factor solution, and both the four- and five-factor solutions probably reflect overfactoring, at least from a clinical or practical standpoint. Although the publisher s final conclusion from the overall analyses was that the four-factor solution, which best fit the younger age groups, was a valid structure for an older adult population, we believe that three factors represent the best fit for ages 75 89 years. Sattler and Ryan (1999) conducted a principal axis factor analysis on each of the 13 age groups of the WAIS-III standardization sample. They specified a four-factor solution and used all 14 WAIS-III subtests (unlike The Psychological Corporation, which excluded Object Assembly from their analyses). Though there were some slight variations in the oblimin-rotated factor loadings across the 13 age groups, for the most part Sattler and Ryan thought that the findings were consistent with those reported by The Psy-
chological Corporation (1997). Sattler and Ryan recognized that there are various explanations for the variations in the structure: sampling differences, measurement error, or an unknown factor related to developmental trends. Those explanations notwithstanding, interesting structural differences were apparent throughout the four factors. For example, three Performance subtests (Picture Arrangement, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Completion) had secondary loadings ( .30) on the Verbal Comprehension factor at one or more ages. In particular, Picture Arrangement loaded .30 or above on Verbal Comprehension at nine age groups and Arithmetic loaded .30 at eight age groups. Letter-Number Sequencing had a rebel loading on the Perceptual Organization factor in the 25- to 29-year-old age group, and the Working Memory factor had loadings of .30 or above by three Performance subtests (Matrix Reasoning, Picture Arrangement, Object Assembly) at one or more age groups. Similarly, the Processing Speed factor had loadings of .30 or above by four subtests (Letter-Number Sequencing, Picture Completion, Digit Span, Block Design) at one or more age groups. Interestingly, the three age groups that comprise the 75- to 89-year-old age group in The Psychological Corporation s analyses (ages 75 79,
PART III
INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION OF WAIS-III RESEARCH
80 84, and 85 89) look different when their data are examined separately than when they are combined as a single elderly sample. Table 7.9 provides the average factor loadings for these three groups together and separately. Several of the Perceptual Organization subtests that loaded aberrantly on the Processing Speed factor in The Psychological Corporation s (1997) analysis of the combined 75- to 89-year-old sample did not load on the Processing Speed factor when analyzed as three separate age groups (Sattler & Ryan, 1999). In fact, most of the loadings of the Performance subtests on the Processing Speed factor seemed to be driven by the oldest age group, the 85- to 89-year-olds; the 75- to 79year-olds had only Digit Symbol-Coding and Symbol Search load on the Processing Speed factor (as was typical for those under age 75), and the 80- to 84-year-olds had only Block Design load above .30 on the Processing Speed factor. There were also a couple of rebel Verbal subtests that loaded on the Processing Speed factor for the 75- to 79-year-old group: Letter-Number Sequencing had a .44 loading and Digit Span had a .37 loading. In addition, as noted previously, the Working Memory factor included secondary loadings by the two Processing Speed subtests for ages 75 89, providing some support for the interpretation of this five-subtest factor in terms of Barkley s (1997) executive functioning construct. However, examination of Table 7.9 indicates that this five-subtest dimension emerged for the total sample of elderly adults, but not for any of the three subsamples; the best support for this executive functioning factor was provided for ages 80 84, as four of the five subtests had loadings above .60. The reasons for the variability in the three oldest age groups are not entirely clear. It seems plausible that the effects of the speeded nature of the Performance subtests do not impact older adults until they reach the age of 85. However, the reason for the lack of strong loadings for Digit Symbol-Coding and Symbol Search on the Processing Speed factor at ages 80 84 is unclear.
In that age group, both of those subtests loaded heavily (above .60) on the Working Memory factor, but in the other two old-age samples the loadings of Digit Symbol-Coding and Symbol Search were solely on the Processing Speed factor. Table 7.9 does reveal a few interesting developmental trends for the Verbal Comprehension factor that may have theoretical implications: (1) the loadings for Similarities descend with increasing age, from .91 (ages 75 79) to .59 (ages 85 89); (2) Arithmetic loads .40 at ages 75 79 and 80 84, but loads negligibly at ages 85 89; (3) Picture Arrangement s loadings increase steadily from ages 75 79 (.21) to 85 89 (.44); and (4) Picture Completion loads negligibly at ages 75 79 and 80 84, but loads .45 for the oldest group. These results may all relate to the striking declines of several abilities with age. Similarities and Arithmetic both require considerable Gf for success, in addition to Gc, unlike the other Verbal subtests. The rapid decline in both Gf and Gc from 75 to 89 years (see 5) may alter the strategies that elderly adults use to solve the problems as they age from the mid-70s to late 80s. The increase in the Verbal Comprehension loadings for Picture Completion and Picture Arrangement, especially for the 85- to 89-year-old group, may be partly a function of the very rapid decline of both Gf and Gv for elderly individuals. Adults in their late 80s may rely on verbal strategies to solve these items because their reasoning and visualization strategies are not at a high enough level to insure success. These are merely speculations about the reasons for the age-related findings evident in Table 7.9. What is more certain is that the factor structures for the three elderly age groups differ in many ways, undoubtedly because of the rapid development that is occurring from age 75 to 89. The combination of these subsamples into a single age group, therefore, may produce factoranalytic results that represent nothing more than an average of disparate factor loadings, suggesting caution in interpreting the data obtained for the 75- to 89-year-old sample.