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similar to the basically simple Digit Span. The auditory paired associates task, for example, requires learning ability and Gf, and is not really an immediate recall task in the true sense of the term. Other WMS-III subtests, as indicated, have components of Gc and Gv and are far more complex than Digit Span. Interestingly, both the WAIS-III and WMS-III yield Working Memory Indexes, yet they are quite different from each other even though both include Letter-Number Sequencing. On the WAIS-III, the WMI reflects a blend of skills, whereas the two-subtest Index of the same name on the WMS-III includes Spatial Span which, like Letter-Number Sequencing, measures Gv as well as Gsm leading to the extreme vulnerability of the WMS-III Working Memory Index. The WMS-III results are consistent with the literature on memory and aging, which is often interpreted within the context of Tulving s (1983) distinction between episodic and semantic memory. Episodic memory refers to personally experienced events or episodes and is assessed experimentally with immediate or delayed recall of word lists, geometric designs, text, faces, and so forth (as well as with more personally oriented tasks requiring individuals to recall things that occurred to them at a particular time or within a specific context). In contrast, semantic memory reflects general world knowledge and is often assessed with tests of information, naming ability, or vocabulary. All of the WMS-III tasks and scales fit into the category of episodic memory. The vulnerability of the WMS-III scales is consistent with the burgeoning literature on age changes in episodic memory that usually reports notable declines with aging on immediate recall, delayed recall, and delayed recognition of a variety of verbal and nonverbal stimuli (e.g., Korten et al., 1997; Souchay, Isingrini, & Espagnet, 2000). Even an elite sample of elderly professors at Berkeley (ages 60 71) performed much more poorly than middle-aged professors (ages 45 59) and young professors (ages 30 44) on a verbal paired-associate learning task (Shimamura, Berry, Mangels, Rusting, & Jurica, 1995). In contrast, semantic memory displays a maintained pattern with little
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variability across most of the adult life span before declining systematically and gradually in very old age (Backman, Small, Wahlin, & Larsson, 2000). In general, the experimental psychology literature on memory and aging mimics the findings of the studies of the Wechsler and Kaufman tests: Episodic memory like fluid intelligence, processing speed, visualization, and the memory abilities assessed by the WMS-III and KAIT is quite vulnerable to the effects of aging, in contrast to semantic memory and the related construct of crystallized intelligence, both of which are maintained abilities that do not decline appreciably until old age. There also seems to be a maintained aging pattern for tasks that might technically fall within the episodic-memory domain, but have a clear-cut Gc component such as recalling the main facts in a mock news broadcast (KAIT Auditory Comprehension and Delayed Auditory Recall) or repeating prose passages that contain factual content. Both of the KAIT memory tasks displayed maintained aging patterns (Kaufman & Horn, 1996; Kaufman et al., 1996). Also, the elderly Berkeley professors who performed so poorly on a paired-associate memory task performed as well as young and middle-aged professors when repeating prose passages about a woman who was robbed (WMS-R Logical Memory), the elements that make up the earth s atmosphere, and the tribal cultures in the Mississippian period (Shimamura et al., 1995).
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The Wechsler adult scales have been in use for more than 60 years, and data on several versions of these scales have been analyzed cross-sectionally, with controls for cohort differences in education, for several generations. Though occasionally the results of an investigation have led to conclusions that suggested little or no decline in P-IQ with advancing age (e.g., Green s, 1969, study of Puerto Rican adults with very limited formal education), the preponderance of evidence accumulated over
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160 PART II INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON AGE, SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AND OTHER KEY VARIABLES time has supported a steady and sometimes dramatic decline in P-IQ as individuals age from adolescence to old age. This decline has been accompanied by maintenance of V-IQ through middle age and occasionally the 60s, before a notable decrease in verbal ability as adults reach their seventh and eighth decades of life. These aging patterns have been interpreted from a Horn-Cattell (Horn & Cattell, 1966, 1967) standpoint as denoting the vulnerability of fluid intelligence or Gf in the face of maintenance of crystallized intelligence or Gc. Some researchers, notably Woodcock (1990) and Flanagan and McGrew (1997), insist that Wechsler s P-IQ denotes only Gv, with virtually no Gf at all, but that position is arguable (Kaufman, 1994a, 2000b). Horn believes that Wechsler s Performance subtests (except for highly speeded tasks like Digit Symbol-Coding) measure a blend of Gf and Gv (Horn & Hofer, 1992), and that interpretation is consistent both with the accumulated research and with examiners clinical observations of the clear-cut problem-solving components of tasks like Block Design and Picture Arrangement. Yet, the tasks, including WAIS-III Matrix Reasoning, definitely involve visual spatial ability also. P-IQ and POI seem to be dependent on both Gf and Gv, and untangling them seems futile. Data from the Kaufman and Kaufman tests clarify the issue to some extent. The KAIT includes measures of Gf, notably Mystery Codes and Logical Steps, that emphasize reasoning ability without stressing visualization. K-SNAP includes one measure of Gf (Four-Letter Words) that has no discernible Gv component at all and includes one measure of Gv (Gestalt Closure) that apparently requires no Gf. All of these Kaufman subtests demonstrated extremely vulnerable patterns for measures that are primarily Gf and for measures that are primarily Gv; these findings are also reinforced by the growth curves for WJ III cognitive scales, although those curves were not adjusted for educational attainment (see 14, especially Figures 14.1 14.3). The WMS-III immediate and delayed scales, which include subtests that are dependent on Gv, also evidenced extreme vulnerability to aging. Therefore, the best conclusion is that the aging declines observed for WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS-III P-IQ and for WAIS-III POI reflect the vulnerability of both Gf and Gv from Horn s theoretical perspective. Even more dramatically, a decline occurs for Gs or broad speediness. From Baltes s theory, the mechanics component is vulnerable to the effects of normal aging and subsumes all of these Horn abilities: reasoning, spatial orientation, and perceptual speed (Baltes, 1997; Baltes, Staudinger, & Lindenberger, 1999). Taken together, the data from the Kaufman tests (KAIT, K-BIT, K-SNAP, K-FAST) and the Wechsler adult scales offer broad-based support for the increase and then maintenance of Gc ( pragmatics to Baltes) across much of the life span before notable declines occur during the 70s and 80s. At the same time, this accumulation of data from the Wechsler and Kaufman tests offers equally pervasive support for the peaking of Gf and Gv abilities in early adulthood (usually 20 24 years) followed by declines that continue throughout adulthood and old age. The findings of maintained Gc abilities and vulnerable Gf abilities including the approximate magnitude of the declines in Gf ability with increasing age, and the ultimate decline in Gc in very old age are also consistent with age-related changes in intelligence observed in well-designed, largescale, cross-sectional studies conducted in Europe (i.e., Rabbitt s, 1993, investigation of more than 6,000 adults ages 50 96 in the United Kingdom, and Baltes & Lindenberger s, 1997, study of 687 adults ages 25 103 in Germany). Data collected prior to 1980 suggest that Gc, once adjusted for educational differences among age groups, peaks in the 60s. However, the more recent data integrated in this chapter from the Kaufman tests (late 1980s and early 1990s) and WAIS-III (mid-1990s) indicate an earlier peak in the 40s. Why this generational shift has occurred is not clear. The overall findings for IQ versus memory variables, regarding patterns of maintenance and
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