Primitive arrays and strings are not firstclass objects in Java

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Primitive arrays and strings are not firstclass objects
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Throughout the text, we use a v e c t o r and a string to provide first-class treatment for arrays and strings
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2 The vector class contains the basic primitive array operations plus additional features Thus it behaves more like a data structure than a simple array However, its use is much safer than the primitive C++ array The vector is part of the Standard Template Library (STL) 3 Appendix D contains further discussion of primitive arrays and strings if you want to see these details early However, you must read Section 13 first A less detailed discussion is given in Sections 26 and 342, which contain descriptions that are sufficient to show how the string and vector are implemented
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string can be copied with = Except in special cases, you should avoid using the built-in C++ array and string The string is a class, or the library type used for first-class strings The vector is a class template, or the library type used for first-class arrays We discuss classes in 2 and class templates in 3 A recurring theme in this text is that using a library routine does not require knowing anything about its underlying implementation However, you may need to know how the second-class counterparts are manipulated because occasionally you must resort to the primitive versions It turns out that both string and vector are implemented by providing an interface that hides the second-class behavior of the built-in types
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122 Using the vector
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To use the standard vector,your program must include a library header file with
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The array indexing operator 11 provGes access to any object in the array
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Arrays are indexed starting at zero
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A using directive may be needed if one has not already been provided Just as a variable must be declared before it is used in an expression and initialized before its value is used so must an array A vecto; is declared by giving it a name, in accordance with the usual identifier rules, and by telling the compiler what type the elements are A size can also be provided; if it is not, the size is zero, but vector will need to be resized later Each object in the collection of objects that an array denotes can be accessed by use of the array indexing operator [ I We say that the [ 1 operator indexes the array, meaning that it specifies which of the objects is to be accessed In C++, arrays are always indexed starting at zero Thus the declaration
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vectorcintl a ( 3 ) ; / / 3 int objects: a [ O l , a [ l l , and a [ 2 1
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sets aside space to store three integers-namely, a [ 0 1 , a [ 11,and a [ 2 1 ; no index range checking is performed in the Standard Library's vector,so an access out of the array index bounds is not caught by the compiler (in this case, the legal array indices range from 0 to 2, inclusive) Although no explicit run-time error may be generated, undefined and occasionally mysterious behavior would occur The vector that we implement in Section 342 allows the programmer to turn on index range checking so that this error causes the program to terminate immediately with a message (Range checking can be done by using a t ; a a t ( i ) is the same as a [ i ] , except that an error is signalled if i is out-of-bounds)
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The size of the vector can always be obtained with the size function For the preceding code fragment example, a size ( ) returns 3 Note the syntax: The dot operator is used to call the vector's size function The size of a vector can always be changed by calling resize Thus an alternative declaration for the vector a could have been
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vector<int> a; aresize( 3 ) ;
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/ / 0 int objects / / 3 int objects: a[O], a[l], and a[2]
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