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for( int i = 1; i < asize( ) ; i++ ) if( compisLessThan( a[ maxIndex I , a[ i I maxIndex = i; return a[ maxIndex 1 ;
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/ / Compare object: ordering by length class LessThanByWidth
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public: boo1 isLessThan( const Rectangle & lhs, const Rectangle & rhs ) const { return lhsgetWidth( ) < rhsgetWidth( 1 ; 1
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int main (
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vector<Rectangle> a ;
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cout << findMax( a, LessThanByWidth(
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endl;
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Example of a function object that does not use function call operator overloading
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Observe that the LessThanByWidth object has no data members, which, as we've already stated, is usually true of function objects Therefore function objects are often passed by using call by value Observe also that when the f indMax template is expanded, the type of comp is known Hence the definition of compisLessThan is also known An aggressive compiler can perform the inline optimization of replacing the function call to cornpisLessThan with the actual definition In many cases, the ability of the compiler to perform this inline optimization can significantly decrease running time
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Function objectscan be passed by using call by valueTheir be inlined
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Design Patterns
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/ / Generic findMax, with a C++-style function object / / Precondition: asize( ) > 0
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template <class Object, class Comparator> const Object & findMax( const vector<Object> & a, Comparator isLessThan )
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for( int i = 1; i < asize( ) ; i++ ) if ( isLessThan ( a [ maxIndex I , a [ i I maxIndex = i; return a[ maxIndex 1 ;
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The method f indMax with a C++-style function object
The function object technique is an illustration of a pattern encountered over and over, not just in C++, but in any language that has objects In C++, an additional coding trick makes the code look much better in the generic algorithm and only slightly worse in the function object's class The better looking f indMax is shown in Figure 54 It contains two basic changes Line 10 now has the call to isLessThan,apparently without a controlling object The method isLessThan is the parameter to f indMax It appears that we are passing the method directly to f indMax and bypassing the function object But that is not what is actually happening Instead, we used the C++ trick of overloading the function call operator in the function object itself That is, because isLessThan is an object, line 10, which reads as
if ( isLessThan ( a [ maxIndex I , a [ i I
is actually interpreted as
if ( isLessThanoperator() ( a[ maxIndex 1 , a[ i
The operator ( ) is the function call operator
The operator ( ) is the function call operator, much like operator [ I is the array indexing operator With this piece of C++ syntax, we can implement various function objects in Figure 55 In Figure 56, we show a simple m a i n that places some Rectangle objects in a vector and then, using the function objects of types defined in Figure 55, finds the maximum Rectangle, first on the basis of length and then on the basis of area
The Functor (Function Objects)
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/ / Compare object: ordering by length class LessThanByLength
public: boo1 operator(
const Rectangle & lhs, const Rectangle & rhs ) const return lhsgetLength( ) < rhsgetLength( ) ; I
/ / Compare object: ordering by area class LessThanByArea
public: boo1 operator(
const Rectangle & lhs, const Rectangle & rhs ) const return lhsgetLength( ) * lhsgetWidth( ) < rhsgetlength ( ) * rhsgetwidth ( ) ; 1
Use of two C++-style function objects to compare Rectangle objects
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#include <iostream> #include <vector> using namespace std;
/ / main: create four rectangles / / find the max, using two different criteria
int main(
vector<Rectangle> a; apush-back( apush-back( apush-back( apush-back( Rectangle( Rectangle( Rectangle( Rectangle( 1, 10 ) ) ; 10, 1 ) ) ; 5, 5 ) 1; 4, 6 ) ) ;
cout < < "Largest length:\n\tU < < findMax( a, LessThanByLength( cout << "Largest area:\n\tU < < findMax( a, LessThanByArea( ) return 0;
<< endl;
<< endl;
Sample program that illustrates f indMax with two different comparison functions
Design Patterns
Adapters and Wrappers
A wrapper class stores a primitive type and adds operations that the primitive type does not support or does not support correctly An adapter class is used when the interface of a class is not exactly what is needed
When we implement algorithms, we often run into a language typing problem: We have an object of one type, but the language syntax requires an object of a different type Sometimes a type conversion works, but often we need a little more For instance, in Section 43, we showed that sorting pointers to shapes did not quite work because operator< is already defined for pointers Consequently, we needed to define a new class that stored the pointer and defined a meaningful operator< This technique illustrates the basic theme of a wrapper class, which typically stores a primitive type and adds operations that the primitive type either does not support or does not support correctly A similar concept is an adapter class, which is typically used when the interface of a class is not exactly what is needed and provides a wrapping effect while changing the interface (in a manner similar to electrical adapters) One difference between wrappers and adapters is that often an adapter is implemented by private inheritance implementation via private inheritance often is not available for wrapper classes that wrap a primitive (and therefore a nonclass) type In this section we illustrate some uses of wrapper classes and also provide an example of an adapter class