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of inheritance guarantees that any method that can be performed by i s t r e a m c a n also be performed by i f s t r e a m a n d that an i f s t r e a m o b j e c t can always be referenced by an i s t r e a m reference Note that the reverse is not true This is why 110 operations are typically written in terms of i s t r e a m and o s t r e a m Because w h a t is a method available in the e x c e p t i o n class, if we need to catch various exceptions (see Figure 41) we can use a c a t c h handler and write: 1
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If e references a bad-cast object, the call to e what ( ) makes sense The reason is that an e x c e p t i o n object supports the w h a t method, and a bad-cast IS-A e x c e p t i o n , meaning that it supports at least as much as e x c e p t i o n Depending on the circumstances of the class hierarchy, the w h a t method could be invariant or it could be specialized for each different class When a method is invariant over a hierarchy-that is, it always has the same functionality for all classes in the hierarchy-we avoid having to rewrite an implementation of a class method
1 Exceptions are handled by try/catch blocks An illustration of the syntax is shown later in this chapter in Figure 47 Code that might throw the exception is placed in a try block, and the exception is handled in a catch block Because the exception object is passed into the catch block, any public methods defined for the exception object can be used on it and any public data defined in the exception object can be examined
lnheritance
In polymorphism a variable can reference objects of several different types When operations are applied to the variable, the operation appropriate to the referenced object is automatically selected Inheritanceallows the derivation of classes from a base class without disturbing the implementation of the base class
A derived class is a completely new class that inherits the properties, public methods, and implementations of the class from which it was derived
If X IS-A Y, then Xis a subclass of Y and Y is a superclass of X These relationships are transitive
The call to what also illustrates an important object-oriented principle known as polymorphism, which is the ability of a reference variable to reference objects of several different types When operations are applied to the variable, the operation that is appropriate to the actual referenced object is automatically selected The same is true for pointer variables (recall that a reference really is a pointer) In the case of an except ion reference, a run time decision is made: The what method for the object that e actually references at run time is the one used This action is known as dynamic, or late, binding Unfortunately, although dynamic binding is the preferred behavior, it is not the default in C++ This language flaw leads to complications Inheritance is the process of deriving a class from a base class without disturbing the implementation of the base class The base class is the foundation for inheritance A derived class is a completely new class that inherits all the properties of the base class, with all the public methods available to the base class becoming public methods-with identical implementations--of the derived class The derived class can then add data members and additional methods and change the meaning of the inherited methods However, the base class is completely unaffected by any changes that are made in the derived class Thus, in designing the derived class, brealung the base class is impossible, which greatly simplifies the task of software maintenance A derived class is type compatible with its base class In other words, a reference variable of the base class type may reference an object of the derived class, but not vice versa (and similarly for pointers) Sibling classes (ie, classes derived from a common class) are not type compatible As mentioned earlier, the use of inheritance typically generates a hierarchy of classes Figure 41 illustrated a small part of the exception hierarchy Note that range-error is indirectly, rather than directly, derived from exceptionThis fact is transparent to the user of the classes because IS-A relationships are transitive In other words, if X IS-A Y and Y IS-A Z, then X IS-A Z The exception hierarchy highlights the typical design approach of factoring commonalities into base classes and then specializing in the derived classes In this hierarchy, we say that the derived class is a subclass of the base class and the base class is a superclass of the derived class These relationships are transitive The arrows in the hierarchy diagrams reflect the modern convention of pointing toward the top (or root) of the hierarchy The stream hierarchy illustrates some fancier design decisions Among other things, commonality among istream and ostream is factored out and placed in iosAlso, iostream inherits from both istream and ostream,illustrating multiple inheritance In the next several sections we examine the following issues