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1 / / Exercise the swap function template 2 int main( ) 3 I 4 int x = 5; 5 int y = 7; 6 double a = 2; 7 double b = 4;
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10 11 12 13 14 / / 15 16 17 1
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swap( x, y ) ; / / Instantiates swap with int swap( x, y ) ; / / Uses already instantiated swap with int swap( a, b ) ; / / Instantiates swap with double cout < < x < < " " << y << endl; cout << a << " " << b << endl; swap( x, b ) ; / / Illegal: no match return 0;
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Swapping is a classic example of a routine that is type-independent and thus well suited for a template implementation In this section we write a function template that sorts and show how a m a i n routine uses it Our simple program reads a sequence of integers (until the end of input or bad input is detected), sorts them, and outputs them If we change our minds and decide that we want a sequence of floating-point numbers or s t r i n g objects, then we expect only a one-word change (at one location) in the entire program' Sorting is accomplished by a simple sort function template Sorting is implemented by an algorithm known as insertion sort Insertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm that is appropriate for small inputs It is generally considered to be a good solution if only a few elements need sorting because it is such a short algorithm and the time required to sort is not likely to be an issue However, if we are dealing with a large amount of data, insertion sort is a poor choice because it is too time consuming In that case better algorithms should be used, as discussed in 9 The insertion sort algorithm is coded in Figure 34 We use this routine in Section 43 Insertion sort works as follows In the initial state the first element, considered by itself, is sorted In the final state all elements (assume that there are N), considered as a group, are to have been sorted Figure 35 shows that the basic action of insertion sort is to sort the elements in positions 0 through p (where p ranges from 1 through N - 1) In each stage p increases by 1 That is what the outer loop at line 7 in Figure 34 is controlling When the body of the f o r loop is entered at line 9, we are guaranteed that the elements in array positions 0 through p- 1 have already been sorted and that we need to extend this to positions 0 to p Figure 36 gives us a closer look at what has to be done, detailing only the relevant part of the array At each step the element in boldface type needs to be added to the previously sorted part of the array We can easily do that by placing it in a temporary variable and sliding all the elements that are larger than i t one position to the right Then we can copy the temporary variable into the former position of the leftmost relocated element (indicated by lighter shading on the following line) We keep a counter j , which is the position to which the temporary variable should be written back Every time an element is slid, j decreases by 1 Lines 9-1 4 implement this process
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~nsertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm that is appropriate for small inputs
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I Of course, this minimal change would also be true of the typedef If our program were more complex and required two types of sorts, the typedef would be inadequate
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