The root pointer points at the root of the tree, which is NULL if the tree is empty in Java

Generation ANSI/AIM Code 39 in Java The root pointer points at the root of the tree, which is NULL if the tree is empty
The root pointer points at the root of the tree, which is NULL if the tree is empty
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The public class functions call hidden private routines
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A Cref object is returned so that we can distinguish between successful and unsuccessful searches
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/ / BinarySearchTree class // / / CONSTRUCTION: with no parameters or another BinarySearchTree // / / * * * * k * * * f * * * * * * * * * p " B L I C OpERATIONS**X******************
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void insert ( x 1 void remove( x ) void removeMin ( ) Comparable find( x i Comparable findMin( ) Comparable findMax( ) boo1 isEmpty( ) void makeEmpty ( )
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Insert Remove Remove Return Return Return Return Remove
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x x smallest item item that matches x smallest item largest item true if empty; else false all items
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template <class Comparable> class BinarySearchTree
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public: BinarySearchTree( ) ; BinarySearchTree( const BinarySearchTree & rhs ) ; const BinarySearchTree & operator=( const BinarySearchTree virtual -BinarySearchTree(
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Cref<Comparable> findMin( ) const; Cref<Comparable> findMax( ) const; Cref<Comparable> find( const Comparable boo1 isEmpty ( ) const; void void void void makeEmpty ( ) ; insert( const Comparable remove( const Comparable removeMin ( ) ;
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const;
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typedef BinaryNode<Comparable> Node; protected: Node *root; Cref<Comparable> elementAt( Node *t ) const; virtual void insert( const Comparable & x, Node * & t virtual void remove( const Comparable & x, Node * & t virtual void removeMin( Node * & t ) const; Node * findMin( Node *t ) const; Node * findMax( Node *t ) const; Node * find( const Comparable & x , Node *t ) const; void makeEmpty( Node * & t ) const; Node * clone( Node *t ) const;
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const; const;
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The BinarySearchTreeclass interface
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/ / Find item x in the tree / / Return the matching item wrapped in a Cref object
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template <class Comparable> Cref<Comparable> BinarySearchTreecComparable>:: find( const Comparable & x ) const
return elementAt( find( x, root
} ) );
/ / Internal method to wrap the element field in node t / / inside a Cref object
template <class Comparable> CrefcComparable> BinarySearchTreecComparable>:: elementAt( Node *t ) const
return t == NULL CrefcComparable>( ) : Cref<Comparable>( t->element
The find public member function that calls a hidden routine and the elementAt member function
derive another class from BinarySearchTree in Section 192 Second, some of the routines must be declared virtual because they are overridden with new definitions in a derived class The insert function adds x to the current tree by calling the hidden insert with root as an additional parameter This action fails if x is l already in the tree; in that case, a ~ u p icateIt emException would be thrown The f indMin,findMax,and find operations return the minimum, maximum, or named item (respectively) from the tree If the item is not found because the tree is empty or the named item is not present, then applying isNull to the returned Cref object will produce trueFigure 197 shows this technique of a public member function calling a private function, as applied to the find method The removeMin operation removes the minimum item from the tree; it throws an exception if the tree is empty The remove operation removes a named item x from the tree; it throws an exception if warranted The makeEmpty and isEmpty methods are the usual fare As is typical of most data structures, the find operation is easier than insert,and insert is easier than removeFigure 198 illustrates the find routine So long as a NULL pointer has not been reached, we either have a match or need to branch left or right The code implements this algorithm quite succinctly Note the order of the tests The test against NULL must be performed first; otherwise, the access t- >element would
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Internal method to find an item in a subtree x is item to search for t is the node that roots the tree Return node containing the matched item template <class Comparable> BinaryNode<Comparable> * BinarySearchTree<Comparable>:: find( const Comparable & x , Node *t ) const
/ / / /
/ / / /
while( t ! = NULL ) if ( x < t->element ) t = t->left; else if( t->element < x ) t = t->right; else return t ; /: Match return NULL;