An incomplete class is used inform the compiler of the existence of another class in Java

Printer Code 39 in Java An incomplete class is used inform the compiler of the existence of another class
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/ / LListItr class; maintains "current position" /I / / CONSTRUCTION: With no parameters The LList class may // construct a LListItr with a pointer to a LListNode // / / ******************PUBLIC OPERATIONS*********************
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/ / / / / / / /
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boo1 isValid( j void advance ( j Object retrieve( )
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True if not NULL Advance (if not already NULL) - - > Return item in current position
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/ / Throws BadIterator for illegal retrieve
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template <class Object> class LListItr
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public: LListItr(
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current( NULL
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boo1 isValid( j const { return current ! = NULL; void advance ( j { if( isValid( j j current
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current->next; 1
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const Object & retrieve( ) const { if( !isValid( j j throw BadIterator( return current->element; }
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private: LListNode<Object> *current; / / Current position LListItr( LListNode<Object> *theNode : current ( theNode ) { 1
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friend class LList<Object>; / / Grant access to constructor 1; The LListItr class
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its use is generally a matter of convenience Because all the methods of the LListItr class are basically trivial, we take the unusual step of implementing them inline The LList class interface is shown in Figure 179 The single data member is a pointer to the header node allocated by the constructor isEmpty is an easily implemented short one-liner The methods z e r o t h and f i r s t return iterators corresponding to the header and first element, respectively, as shown in Figure 1710 Other routines either search the list for some item or change the list via insertion or deletion, and are shown later
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/ / LList class //
/ / CONSTRUCTION: with no initializer / / Access is via LListItr class
// // // //
// // // //
// / / ******************ERR~R~*****~****************************
******************PUBLIC o~ERATIoNs******************X** boo1 isEmpty( ) - - > Return true if empty; else false void makeEmpty( ) - - > Remove all items LListItr zeroth( ) --> Return position to prior to first LListItr first( ) --> Return first position void insert( x, p ) --> Insert x after position p void remove( x ) --> Remove x LListItr find( x ) --> Return position that views x LListItr findprevious( x ) - - > Return position prior to x No special errors
template <class Object> class LList
public: LList( ) ; LList( const LList -LList( ) ; rhs
boo1 isEmpty( const; void makeEmpty( ) ; LListItr<Object> zeroth( ) const; LListItr<Object> first ( ) const; void insert( const Object & x, const ~~istItr<Object> p & LListItr<Object> find( const Object & x ) const; LListItr<Object> findprevious( const Object & x ) const; void remove( const Object & x ) ; const LList
operator=( const LList
private: LListNode<Object> *header;
The LList class interface
Figure 171 I illustrates how the LList and LListItr classes interact The printList method outputs the contents of a list This function uses only public methods and a typical iteration sequence of obtaining a starting point (via first), testing that it has not gone past the ending point (via isvalid), and advancing in each iteration (via advance)
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/ / Construct the list template <class Object> LList<Object>::LList( )
header
new LListNode<Object>;
/ / Test if the list is logically empty / / Return true if empty, false, otherwise
template <class Object> boo1 LList<Object>::isEmpty( ) const
return header->next
NULL;
/ / Return an iterator representing the header node
template <class Object> LListItr<Object> LList<Object>::zeroth( ) const
return LListItr<Object>( header
/ / Return an iterator representing the first node in the list / / This operation is valid for empty lists
25 template <class Object> 26 LListItr<Object> LList<Object>::first( ) const 27 { 28 return LListItr<Object>( header->next ) ; 29 1
Figure 1710 Some LList class one-liners
Short-circuiting is used in the find routine at line 8 and in the similar part of the remove routine
Let us revisit the issue of whether all three classes are necessary For instance, couldn't we just have the LList class maintain a notion of a current position Although this option is feasible and works for many applications, using a separate iterator class expresses the abstraction that the position and list actually are separate objects Moreover, it allows for a list to be accessed in several places simultaneously For instance to remove a sublist from a list, we can easily add a remove operation to the list class that uses two iterators to specify the starting and ending points of the sublist to be removed Without the iterator class this action would be more difficult to express We can now implement the remaining LList methods First is find, shown in Figure 1712, which returns the position in the list of some element Line 8 takes advantage of the fact that the and (&&Ioperation is shortcircuited: If the first half of the and is false, the result is automatically false and the second half is not evaluated