The Standard Template Library in Java

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The Standard Template Library
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731 Containers
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A container represents a group of objects, known as its elements
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A container represents a group of objects, known as its elements Some implementations such as vectors and lists are unordered; others, such as sets and maps, are ordered Some implementations allow duplicates; others do not All containers support the following operations
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boo1 empty(
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const
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returns t r u e if the container contains no elements and f a l s e otherwise
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iterator begin(
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const
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returns an i t e r a t o r that can be used to begin traversing all locations in the container
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The end marker is a position one past the last element in the container
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iterator end(
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returns an i t e r a t o r that represents the end marker, a position past the last element in the container
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int size(
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returns the number of elements in the container The most interesting of these methods are those that return an i t e r a t o r We describe the operations that can be performed by an i t e r a t o r in Section 732
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732 The iterator
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An iterator is an object that allows access to and iteration through the elements in a container
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As described in Section 54, an iterator is an object that allows access to and iteration through all the elements in a container We discussed the use of the I t e r a t o r class in the context of read-only vectors in Section 54 In the STL, there are actually many types of i t e r a t o r s However, we can always count on the following operations being available for any iterator type
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itr++
advances the iterator i t r to the next location Both the prefix and postfix forms are allowable, but the precise return type (whether it is a constant reference or a reference) can depend on the type of iterator
*itr
A const-i terator must be used to traverse const containers
returns a reference to the object stored at iterator i t r ' s location The reference returned may or may not be modifiable, depending on the type of iterator' For instance, the c o n s t - i t e r a t o r , which must be used to
2 The reference may be only modifiable !ie * i t r may not appear on the right-hand side)
These are output iterators but we won't have occasion to make use of them Instead we restrict our discussion to forward iterators bidirectional iterators and random access iterators
- -
Containers and Iterators
traverse const containers, has an operator* that returns a const reference, thus not allowing *itr to be on the left-hand side of an assignment
itrl==itr2
returns true if iterators it rl and itr2 refer to the same location and false otherwise
itrl!=itr2
returns true if iterators itrl and itr2 refer to a different location and false otherwise Each container defines several iterators For instance, vec tor<int> defines
vector<int>::iterator andvector<int>::const-iterator
( T h e r e a r e a l s o r e v e r s e i t e r a t o r s that we d o not d i s c u s s ) T h e const-iterator must be used instead of an iterator if the container is nonmodifiable As an example, the routine shown in Figure 76 prints the elements of any container, provided that the element has operator<< defined for it If the container is an ordered set, its elements are output in sorted order3 Some iterators have more power than the forward iterator shown in Figure 76 Because we do not cover the full STL, we restrict our discussion to the iterators that occur in the text The forward iterator allows forward traversal through a container, via operator++If the iterator also supports operator - -, that is, i t supports both forward and backward traversal through a container, it is said to be a bidirectional iterator Generally speaking, in Part IV we write the code for the forward iterator and leave the bidirectional support as an exercise for you to do
Bidirectional iterators support operator--
1 / / Print the contents of Container c 2 template <class Container> 3 void printcollection( const Container & c ) 4 i 5 typename Container: :const-iterator itr; 6 for( itr = cbegin( ) ; itr ! = cend( ) ; ++itr 7 cout << *itr << endl;