Between research and design: Models, requirements, and frameworks in Java

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Between research and design: Models, requirements, and frameworks
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Few design methods in common use today incorporate a means of effectively and systematically translating the knowledge gathered during research into a detailed design specification. Part of the reason for this has already been identified: Designers have historically been out of the research loop and have had to rely on thirdperson accounts of user behaviors and desires. The other reason, however, is that few methods capture user behaviors in a manner that appropriately directs the definition of a product. Rather than providing information about user goals, most methods provide information at the task level. This type of information is useful for defining layout, workflow, and translation of functions into interface controls, but is less useful for defining the basic framework of what a product is, what it does, and how it should meet the broad needs of the user. Instead we need an explicit, systematic process to bridge the gap between research and design for defining user models, establishing design requirements, and translating those into a high-level interaction framework (see Figure 1-5). Goal-Directed Design seeks to bridge the gap that currently exists in the digital product development process, the gap between user research and design, through a combination of new techniques and known methods brought together in more effective ways.
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Part I: Understanding Goal-Directed Design
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A process overview
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Goal-Directed Design combines techniques of ethnography, stakeholder interviews, market research, detailed user models, scenario-based design, and a core set of interaction principles and patterns. It provides solutions that meet the needs and goals of users, while also addressing business/organizational and technical imperatives. This process can be roughly divided into six phases: Research, Modeling, Requirements Definition, Framework Definition, Refinement, and Support (see Figure 1-5). These phases follow the five component activities of interaction design identified by Gillian Crampton Smith and Philip Tabor understanding, abstracting, structuring, representing, and detailing with a greater emphasis on modeling user behaviors and defining system behaviors.
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Research
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users and the domain
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Modeling
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users and use context
Requirements
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definition of user, business, and technical needs
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Framework
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definition of design structure and flow
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Refinement
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of behaviors, form, and content
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Support
development needs
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Figure 1-5 The Goal-Directed Design process.
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The remainder of this chapter provides a high-level view of the five phases of GoalDirected Design, and s 4 7 provide more detailed discussion of the methods involved in each of these phases. See Figure 1-6 for a more detailed diagram of the process, including key collaboration points and design concerns.
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Research
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The Research phase employs ethnographic field study techniques (observation and contextual interviews) to provide qualitative data about potential and/or actual users of the product. It also includes competitive product audits, reviews of market research and technology white papers and brand strategy, as well as one-on-one interviews with stakeholders, developers, subject matter experts (SMEs), and technology experts as suits the particular domain. One of the principal outcomes of field observation and user interviews is an emergent set of behavior patterns identifiable behaviors that help categorize modes of use of a potential or existing product. These patterns suggest goals and motivations (specific and general desired outcomes of using the product). In business and technical domains, these behavior patterns tend to map into professional roles; for consumer products, they tend to correspond to lifestyle choices. Behavior patterns and the goals associated with them drive the creation of personas in the Modeling phase. Market research helps select and filter valid personas that fit business
1: Goal-Directed Design
models. Stakeholder interviews, literature reviews, and product audits deepen the designers understanding of the domain and elucidate business goals, brand attributes, and technical constraints that the design must support. 4 provides a more detailed discussion of Goal-Directed research techniques.
Modeling
During the Modeling phase, behavior and workflow patterns discovered through analysis of the field research and interviews are synthesized into domain and user models. Domain models can include information flow and workflow diagrams. User models, or personas, are detailed, composite user archetypes that represent distinct groupings of behaviors, attitudes, aptitudes, goals, and motivations observed and identified during the Research phase. Personas serve as the main characters in a narrative, scenario-based approach to design that iteratively generates design concepts in the Framework Definition phase, provides feedback that enforces design coherence and appropriateness in the Refinement phase, and represents a powerful communication tool that helps developers and managers to understand design rationale and to prioritize features based on user needs. In the Modeling phase, designers employ a variety of methodological tools to synthesize, differentiate, and prioritize personas, exploring different types of goals and mapping personas across ranges of behavior to ensure there are no gaps or duplications. Specific design targets are chosen from the cast of personas through a process of comparing goals and assigning a hierarchy of priority based on how broadly each persona s goals encompass the goals of other personas. A process of designating persona types determines the amount of influence each persona has on the eventual form and behavior of the design. A detailed discussion of persona and goal development can be found in 5.