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This separation of the differing networks by a router (Layer 3 device) provides many key features that might not be immediately obvious. First, any message from an Ethernet station to another Ethernet station is insulated from the ATM network. This means that no ATM station will ever have to concern itself with understanding an Ethernet frame. More than this, it means that the router will drop any packets that arrive at its Ethernet interface that are not intended for a device on the ATM network and vice versa. This means that a device can have assurance that it will not receive packets from an unrecognized Data Link protocol and it will not have to waste valuable processing time on extraneous data. Another benefit is that each device needs to have a protocol stack only for its respective network. ATM devices need only an ATM protocol stack, and Ethernet devices need only an Ethernet stack. They may all have identical IP protocol stacks, and, indeed, this is probably the case if they are all running the same operating system (most OSs embed the TCP/IP protocol stack as part of the system itself). Finally,
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3.1 O SI L AY E R 2 OV E RV I E W
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the separation provides protection in the event of a serious network malfunction on either network. The router will prevent errors relating to the Ethernet protocol from infecting the ATM network and vice versa. All hosts on the Ethernet network could be encountering serious problems, and the ATM hosts could still continue communicating with each other without any problems. This sort of network separation is a key part of good network design, and you will encounter it frequently.
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3.2 Layer 2 Protocols: PPP, ATM, and Time Division Multiplexing
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In the following sections, we examine some of the most important Layer 2 protocols. The protocols in this section comprise all of the most important Data Link protocols in use in modern networks with the exception of Ethernet. Because of its particular importance, we discuss Ethernet in its own separate section later in the chapter.
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PPP: The Point-to-Point Protocol
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In the early days of the Internet, point-to-point data links allowed hosts to communicate with each other through the telephone network. Older protocols such as Serial Line IP (SLIP) provided a simple mechanism for framing higher-layer applications for transmission along serial lines. Serial lines allow for data to be sent in a single-byte stream one after another in serial, as opposed to allowing multiple byte streams in parallel, hence the designation. By far the most typical serial lines continue to be dial-up modem connections to an ISP. SLIP, in accordance with RFC 1055, sent the datagram across the serial line as a series of bytes, and it used special characters to mark when a series of bytes should be grouped together as a datagram. SLIP was simple enough but could not control the characteristics of the connection. Because of its limitation and lack of features such as error detection, SLIP has largely been replaced by other protocols. Today, the protocol of choice for this purpose is the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which provides advantages such as link control to negotiate the link characteristics, network control to transfer multiple Layer 3 protocols, and authentication used by remote computers to dial into their Internet service. Figure 3.2 shows a typical configuration for which the SLIP protocol would have been used in the past, but today would be served by the PPP protocol stack installed on your home computer and on the ISP s router.
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Figure 3.2 A PC using a modem to connect to the Internet or any other dial-up network would use the PPP protocol.
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PPP is by far the dominant point-to-point protocol in use in modern networks. The frame itself is fairly simple and, in fact, has several fields that are not actually used. The reason for this is that the frame is derived from the frame for the High Level data link layer Control (HDLC) protocol designed by IBM. HDLC is still in use, but primarily only for connections to IBM mainframes. Some of the fields in the PPP header are relevant for HDLC but not for PPP and are retained mainly as historical artifacts. The PPP frame is shown in Figure 3.3, and the relevant fields are described in the following list.
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Figure 3.3 The PPP frame header. The address and control fields are not used by PPP and are always set to default values.
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