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information transparent and seamless. Figure 1.4 illustrates how a single content provider can serve its content to multiple ISP POP locations. As previously discussed, interconnections between providers are facilitated through exchange points known as IXPs. Because IXPs serve as the switching points for a large amount of traffic, it is critical that they switch packets from one provider network to another as quickly and reliably as possible. having an IXP at the city level helps all the traffic between various ISPs and content providers to travel within the same city. In Figure 1.5, for instance, the ISP A POP and ISP B POP in Toronto can communicate via the Toronto IXP. If a content provider wants to peer with the IXP in a city, all the traffic between the ISP POPs in that city and the content provider is now localized. Without the presence of an IXP, the intracity inter-ISP traffic might have to be carried to an IXP in another city. This means that a user could be sitting at her apartment in Toronto and accessing a server at her office in downtown Montreal, but her traffic might be routed via Ottawa because of an out-of-town IXP.
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Figure 1.5 Content goes through an IXP and is forwarded to various ISP POPs.
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1.4: Overview of TCP/IP
For the Internet to work properly, the underlying components need a common way of communicating. This is achieved by providing common addressing to all the physical components. You can think of a physical device address the same way you think of a
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home address. Each address uniquely identifies a particular house somewhere in the world, and no two addresses are exactly alike. Similarly, the addressing is hierarchical, having a street address, a city, and a country (and a state, if you are in the United States). however, since these addresses are meant to be used solely by machines, they use only numeric addresses. In order to get data from one addressed host to another, you need a protocol that understands the addressing and knows how to get from point A to point B. On the Internet, this protocol is known appropriately enough as the Internet Protocol (IP), and the addresses are known as IP addresses. An example of an IP address is 138.120.105.45, and this address must be unique to a single computer. Delivering packets to a given IP address is again very similar to the methods that one would use to deliver mail to a person s home. The distribution of IP addresses is supervised by a centralized authority known as the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), the way home addresses are issued by local government agencies. Indeed, the actual issuance of IP addresses is handled by different delegated Regional Internet Registry (RIR) agencies in different parts of the world, as shown in Figure 1.6.
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Figure 1.6 Regional Internet Registry agents allocate IP addresses.
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Some of the IP address allocations managed by RIR (Regional Internet Registry )
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Just as with the postal system, the Internet provides a method for sending information from one place to another. On the Internet, information is sent in discrete units called packets. These packets actually consist of multiple pieces of information that are
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layered one on top of the other. Each piece of information is relevant to a particular process used by end-user computers or intermediate network devices. To continue the analogy, the layering of information can be compared to regular postal service, where there are several distinct functions: Creating the letter Enclosing the letter in an envelope, writing the sender s and recipient s addresses Choosing the type of delivery for the envelope (same day service, same week, etc.) Placing the appropriate stamp on the letter reflecting the service Physically sending the letter via carriers through air, water, or land All these functions are relevant with transporting the letter to the proper destination. At the destination, the letter is received, and depending on the transport service, an acknowledgment of receipt may be sent back to the sender. The letter is simply then removed from the envelope, and its contents are then read. Layering of TCP/IP information is treated in a similar fashion. The central difference is that TCP/IP is intended to transfer information to individual listening processes at a given IP address. A computer with a single IP address might provide numerous services such as email, web hosting, and data storage. TCP/IP allows for all of the IP packets to be delivered to the same computer system, and then unpacked and delivered to the individual process that requires that particular piece of information. TCP/IP also provides a reliable service, meaning it will re-send packets if it does not receive an acknowledgment of receipt. This layering approach, wherein service functions are distributed, is common of network protocols in general and TCP/IP in particular. Each layer of the protocol layering stack adds the pertinent information (destination, error checks, etc.) at the beginning of the data, thereby adding more information to the data. The data en route to the receiver passes through several other systems that look only at the relevant header information for the layers that they are interested in and pass the data to another device. This would be similar in function to having envelopes inside other envelopes, with each envelope having different information. For example, there might be an envelope that has just address information for an office building. Once the envelope is delivered to the building, the mail room would open the outer envelope, and inside there would be another envelope with a specific office location. None of the intermediate mail delivery systems would need to know about the exact office, so that information would be shielded from them.
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