Figure 1.1 The original ARPA network had only four nodes. in .NET

Access Code 128B in .NET Figure 1.1 The original ARPA network had only four nodes.
Figure 1.1 The original ARPA network had only four nodes.
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1.1: B E F O R E T h E I N T E R N E T
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Other developments began to transpire to drive the ARPANET s need for heterogeneous communications. Robert Kahn, a Bolt, Baranek, and Newman researcher who had been instrumental in designing the ARPANET and improving its reliability, had been organizing an event to demonstrate the ARPANET. During this event in the spring of 1973, a new working group called the International Network Working Group (INWG) was organized. One of the tasks that the INWG decided to undertake was to connect ARPANET and ALOhANET to some of the new packet-switching European networks to create a giant global network. Robert Kahn began a lengthy series of discussions with Vint Cerf, the INWG chairman, to find a solution to their mutual challenges. Their model was an internetworking of ARPANET with ALOhANET and a satellite network (SATNET) each of which used different communication protocols and different physical interfaces, optimized for that particular network s needs. Although the model was still in its infancy, the ARPANET designers were beginning to encounter various types of networks that needed to connect to their systems, and they faced a variety of challenges. The challenges faced by Kahn and Cerf would sow the intellectual seeds for the development of a protocol that could provide intercommunication across a wide variety of systems and physical infrastructures. These seeds would later bear fruit with the development of TCP/IP.
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ARPANET Challenges and the Origin of TCP/IP
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One of the biggest initial challenges to the ARPANET was to guarantee a high degree of reliability across a variety of communication media. Recall that the ARPANET was designed principally to support the U.S. DoD s military requirements, which meant that the network had to be very reliable under failure situations. The ARPANET had originally been designed to use the Network Control Protocol (NCP) for communication between end systems. NCP provided connections and flow control between different processes running on different computers on the ARPANET. Applications such as email and file transfer were built to use NCP to send the required information and receive responses from other systems. While NCP provided many necessary features and was a good first step, it was not resilient enough to handle unreliable links such as packet radio and satellite links. (Think of the static that is sometimes encountered when listening to your favorite radio station, and imagine data packets encountering similar interference.) This posed a serious problem for interconnecting systems that relied on those types of technologies to the ARPANET.
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NCP addressing proved to be problematic as well, since it only addressed next-hop nodes. This would be equivalent to being able to telephone only people in your own area code, or only address letters to people who lived in your same city. While still useful, such limitations would obviously prevent you from communicating outside of your immediate part of the world, and thus NCP addressing was hardly sufficient for the sort of global interconnections that ARPANET designers were contemplating. If this weren t enough, each network that connected to the ARPANET had its own maximum packet size. In order to facilitate network communication, information is sent over the physical medium in discrete units called packets. A packet is equivalent to an envelope that holds a certain amount of information and no more. If you need to send more information than will fit in one envelope, you use multiple envelopes. On the ARPANET, various networks supported various maximum-sized packets (envelopes), so when a system needed to transfer information from one system to another, it often required unpacking one large envelope to fit into many smaller envelopes. In order to alleviate these problems, Kahn undertook the development of a new host-to-host protocol. The new protocol would support global addressing, the ability to recover from lost packets, fragmentation and reassembly (the big-envelope-to-smallenvelope problem), end-to-end checksums to verify that packet contents have not been altered in transit, and host-to-host flow control. he asked Cerf, who was by this time a professor at Stanford University, to help with the protocol development because he had experience with the design of NCP. To solicit the widest possible input for the project, Cerf ran a series of seminars at Stanford for students and visitors to discuss and challenge ideas as they were formed. The outcome of this effort was a protocol whose success exceeded anything that its designers could possibly have envisioned. Cerf and Kahn presented their first version of the new protocol at a meeting of the INWG at Sussex University in the United Kingdom in September 1973. They called it the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). And the rest, as the saying goes, is history. A point on terminology is worth mentioning here. The original TCP included the addressing and other functions of the IP protocol; hence, the original protocol was known simply as TCP (the IP protocol is an important part of the TCP/IP protocol stack and will be discussed in detail in 5). After more work and discussions on the protocol, Kahn and Cerf decided in 1978 to split TCP into two discrete protocols, one called TCP and one called the Internet Protocol (IP). Each protocol would
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