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Figure 7.8 A typical TCP transfer of data, where the sender is using a congestion window (cwnd) to control the rate at which it is sending. The cwnd is increased until it exceeds the receiver s advertised window or congestion is detected. When congestion is detected, the receiver reduces its cwnd accordingly, and then the process starts over.
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Slow start cwnd = 1 cwnd = 2 SEQ number 12000 ACK number 12000, window = 8000 1000 bytes data
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ACK number 13000, window = 7000 SEQ number 13000 SEQ number 14000 1000 bytes data 1000 bytes data
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ACK number 15000, window = 6000 SEQ number 15000 SEQ number 16000 SEQ number 17000 SEQ number 18000 1000 bytes data 1000 bytes data 1000 bytes data 1000 bytes data dropped delayed
ACK number 17000, window = 6000 cwnd = 2 Congestion avoidance ACK number 17000, window = 7000
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2. Because this is the start of the session, the sender is in the slow start phase and, therefore, sets its congestion window (cnwd) value to 1. The sender transmits one segment of 1,000 bytes even though there is more data to send, and a window size of 8,000 is specified by the receiver (i.e., it sends the lesser of the cwnd and the receiver s advertised window size). 3. The first segment is acknowledged by the receiver with a window size of 7,000, and the segment is buffered. The sender increases its cnwd value to 2. The sender can now transmit two segments of 1,000 bytes each. note that the sender is ramping up the rate at which it is sending. 4. The receiving application has used the previous segment, but the two new segments are buffered and are acknowledged with a window size of 6,000. 5. Because the sender received an acknowledgement for two more segments, the sender increases the cnwd value by 2 to 4. The sender then transmits four segments of 1,000 bytes each.
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7.2 T R A nSP O RT C On T RO L PRO TO C O L (TC P)
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6. The third segment is dropped because of congestion, and the fourth segment is delayed. When the first two segments are received, an acknowledgement (17000) is sent. Because the previously buffered segments have been used and the two new segments are buffered, the window size is 6,000. 7. After a delay because of congestion, the fourth segment is received and acknowledged. Because the third segment is still missing, the acknowledgement number is still 17000. Because the two previous segments have been used and the new segment is buffered, the window size is 7,000. 8. When the sender receives the second acknowledgement, the sender determines that congestion has occurred and enters the congestion avoidance phase. The cnwd value is reduced by half to 2. Depending on timer values and the implementation, the missing segment may be re-transmitted immediately or later. This description may be a bit daunting. however, this is very much the way TCP conversations occur in the real world. each side is constantly attempting to adjust itself to the network conditions based on reception of data, received windows, missing segments, and so on. You may need to go through this list of steps several times while following along with Figure 7.8 to fully understand everything that is going on. Just keep in mind the fundamental principles previously discussed. The sender is going to advertise the window size of data that it is willing to receive, and it is going to acknowledge the data that it has already received. It is up to the sender to send at the rate of its congestion window or TCP window, whichever is less, and to recognize that a segment it has sent has been dropped based on the ACK numbers received from the receiver. You should review these steps until you are confident the process is completely clear to you. In the next section, we review UDP, which, as you will see, is a much simpler protocol with far fewer features.
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7.3 User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
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The original User Datagram Protocol specification is found in RFC 768, which describes the key aspects of the protocol. Unlike TCP, which has many features and can provide reliable communication across an unreliable infrastructure, UDP is far simpler and provides no guarantees of delivery. however, UDP is still a very useful transport-layer protocol. TCP provides its features and reliability at the cost of
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