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In this chapter we must discuss the use of the retro tted nail laminated timber arch as stiffening and strengthening devise installed in many covered bridges of the multiple kingpost design. Obviously, these bridges should not be categorized as Burr arch-trusses for they do not follow the Burr patent. The considerable structural advantages of retro tted two-hinged nail or bolted laminated arches offer a strong case for not restoring a bridge to the earlier time period that does not include the arches. It can easily be demonstrated that retro tted nail laminated two-hinge arches do not share load-carrying capacity equally with the truss system. If properly built and maintained, the nail or bolt laminated two-hinged arch adds considerable stiffness to the bridge structure. The capacity of the arches depends on the supports being nonyielding and the arches being held in line to avoid buckling out of plane. For the arches to work, the arch ends must bear against a thrust block capable of resisting all horizontal and vertical forces without movement. This is one Achilles heel of retro tted nail laminated stiffening arches. The second possible defect in nailed or stitch bolted arches is the lack of suf cient fastening to resist shear forces between individual laminations caused by bending moments induced by unbalanced loads. If a bridge retro tted with two hinged laminated arches is raised to avoid oods or ice in the river, then the stone abutments and piers will have to be modi ed or rebuilt to accommodate the horizontal thrust of the arches.
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The Bunker Hill Covered Bridge
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The boundary (support) conditions for both the arches and the trusses are very important to the evaluation and condition assessment of the bridge. The ability of the pier and abutments to resist the horizontal thrust of the arches without movement is critical. The recon guration of bed timbers, bearing blocks and bolster beams at supports is a powerful tool in strengthening an historic covered bridge because the truss superstructure is not affected. These elements are among the rst to deteriorate because of their proximity to stone, earth, and water. Because of this, these pieces are rarely original to the period of construction. Often, the current timbers are creosote treated replacements. Enlarging bed timbers can reduce the span of a bridge, greatly reducing member forces.
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From an engineering standpoint, it could be argued that the best form for a new covered timber bridge would be a double Town lattice with a stiffening arch. For any re nement of the Town lattice truss, the designer should simply look to General Herman Haupt s Improved Lattice Truss. General Haupt (1817 1905), a noted bridge designer from Pennsylvania, graduated from West Point and became chief of military railroads during the Civil War. Rigorous mathematical methods of analyzing the forces and stresses in framed structures, such as bridges, were unknown until the 1840s. Civil engineers Squire Whipple and Herman Haupt independently developed mathematical methods of truss design. In 1842, Herman Haupt produced a small pamphlet, Hints on Bridge Construction by an Engineer. 2 Squire Whipple is credited with developing the scienti c basis of bridge design in America with his 1847 publication, A Work on Bridge Building. In 1851, Herman Haupt produced his major work, General Theory of Bridge Construction.2
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THE BUNKER HILL COVERED BRIDGE
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In North Carolina, the Bunker Hill Covered Bridge, owned by the Catawba County Historical Society, was built in 1895 in general accordance with General Haupt s 1839 design patent. The Bunker Hill Bridge is 80 feet, 2 inches long (out-to-out) and 10 feet wide. The oor consists of two layers of 2 8 and 2 10 deck boards supported by 3 10 oor beams spaced approximately 34 inches on center. The Bunker
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