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FIGURE 14-1 A Delaware County (New York) truck of known weight was used to test the Downsville Covered Bridge.
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FIGURE 14-2 Readings were obtained before, during, and after the loading of the bridge.
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Structural upgrading of a bridge, if needed may involve the substitution of larger pieces in certain areas of a truss or oor structure. The lateral bracing of the bridge truss or a radial stiffening arch may have to be increased or modi ed. Wherever possible, the upgrading of an historic timber bridge should
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Crisis in American Covered Bridges
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utilize members and connections similar to the original bridge fabric. Steel cover plates, stiffeners, ties and modern connectors should be avoided wherever possible. The timber bridge trusses of Reuban L. Partridge (c.1823 1900) in Ohio appear to be designed to allow for the easy replacement of web compression members and the outboard chord material. Only the tension diagonals that are notched through the multiple chord members are impossible to replace without extensive shoring or the bridge. Mr. Partridge s bridges, less than 100 feet in span, can be structurally upgraded by substituting full-length glued laminated timber members for existing bottom-chord material. This substitution will increase the tensile capacity of the bottom chord in three ways. The use of full-length glued laminated timber removes the reduction to the multichord net section due to shear block notches and butt splices. Also, higher allowable design values in tension are available with glued laminated timber materials. These kinds of solutions would bring to these projects timber design expertise capable of evaluating and analyzing historic bridges as timber structures. Historic timber structures provide an excellent laboratory for the timber industry. Information regarding the long-term performance of wood would be of great assistance to structural engineers faced with the problem of evaluating historic structures. Research opportunities such as these would add to our knowledge of modern timber engineering, as we utilize this renewable construction material, so important to our forest products and construction industries. Structural engineers with timber design experience must become actively involved in historic preservation in order to save our remaining historic covered bridges. Highway department bridge engineers must seek out consultants with timber design expertise. By working together, we can save an important part of our civil engineering heritage.
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National Forest Products Association, National Design Speci cations for Wood Construction, Washington, D.C.: National Forest Products Association, 1977.
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The Timber Trusses of Burr, Town, and Haupt
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ne cannot offer a good summary of the engineering aspects of covered bridge design without discussing the work of Theodore Burr (1771 1822), Ithiel Town (1784 1844), and Herman Haupt (1817 1905). This discussion is illustrated by several case histories in this chapter and in other places in this book. In recent years, the attention of state DOT bridge-engineering departments has been focused on historic timber-framed covered bridges. Transportation enhancement funds made available in the past 10 years, and the Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program, have suddenly provided opportunities to rehabilitate these historic timber structures. Many people during most of the twentieth century considered covered bridges to be primitive, unengineered systems. After all, the designer/builders did not have access to sophisticated methods of structural analysis. These were mere timber structures, often built in remote areas of the country, far from industrialized cities, usually constructed with locally grown timber. They were built in an era when wrought and cast iron, and steel and concrete, eclipsed timber as the construction materials of choice. Even today, few recognize the environmental advantages of constructing such monumental structures from our most important renewable resource. Indeed, many sustainable construction advocates and some members of the forest products industry do not fully realize the bene ts of heavy timber construction.
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Structural Investigation of Historic Buildings: A Case Study Guide to Preservation Technology for Buildings, Bridges, Towers, and Mills. David. C. Fischetti 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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