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Historic structures provide the best laboratories for basic research in materials. The service life of a material or system can best be observed in an installation that has experienced cycles of thermal and moisture changes, long periods of sunlight, and gravitational force. Accumulated knowledge in preservation technology offers a broader palette of solutions. For example, a structural system to replace a historic hammer-beam truss in a church could be a steel frame clad in wood, a glued laminated timber frame with bolted connections and steel side plates, or a traditional timber frame with dovetail and mortise-andtenon connections, or multiple leaves of prefabricated nail plate trusses. The structural system could be built with precast concrete or extruded aluminum box sections, or the frame could consist of ber-reinforced plastic resin structural elements simply grained to look like wood. The nal decision should depend on what is most appropriate for the project, rather than what is most comfortable for the engineer. Unfortunately, there is little incentive for the construction-material industry to spend money on historic-materials research. Basic research focuses on
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bringing new products to market. For example, basic research into the loadduration factor for timber design as it applies to timber structures that have been in service for a very long time will not help sell new products for the forest-products industry. The clay-products industry has little or no interest in doing research into what might be considered archaic systems, such as limebased mortars, terra cotta, and structural clay tile. Smaller specialty suppliers are still the primary source of replacement materials for preservation projects.
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Building codes continue to change in response to disasters. The terrible Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory re of March 25, 1911, affected building codes in New York City, as well as other North American cities. The 1981 Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkway failure changed the way steel structures are designed and detailed by shifting more of the burden for the design of shop details to the engineer of record. As a result of Hurricane Andrew, which battered south Florida in 1992, codes have been complicated with various windload factors and unrealistic loading conditions in order to prevent future damage from a similar storm, as if a de ciency in the code were the problem (studies have shown that the code in South Florida was more than adequate, had it been followed, to produce buildings constructed well enough to resist wind forces generated by Hurricane Andrew). The Northridge, California, earthquake of 1994, as well as the one in Kobe, Japan, a year later, will greatly affect seismic requirements of the building codes to be published in the next few years. New textbooks, handbooks, design codes, and building codes regularly replace the old. In recent years, there has been an accelerated transfer of basic research regarding the application of loads wind, snow, and seismic from the graduate-school laboratories directly into model building codes. Building codes are not the proper forums for this exchange of ideas; rather, they should be a distillation of the best and simplest requirements, which have been proven. Only time will tell how these more complex building codes will affect the existing stock of buildings as they become candidates for restoration, rehabilitation, or demolition. Instead of being of repository of minimal, yet simple, requirements for the construction of the safe structures, building codes are prescribing complicated methods of analysis, forcing engineers into a cookbook methodology from which they cannot vary, except at their own peril. An engineer evaluating the seismic resistance of a historic structure must t in into a certain building type.
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The Current State of Historic Preservation Engineering: One Engineer s Point of View
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In a 1990 issue of Wood Design Focus, Arlo Ceccotti presented an earthquakeperformance challenge to researchers, code writers, and designers:
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It is evident that thorough knowledge and planned balance of the positive and negative aspects will yield a proper design that guarantees structural safety at a reasonable cost. Researchers have the challenge of quantifying the factors that yield ductile behavior and energy dissipation in the structure. They can determine how to design and detail connections that lead to ductile systems, rather than brittle failures. Code writers have the challenge of combining the often disparate results of research. They must present a few relatively simple and conservative design rules, which are easy to apply, for the most common structural forms (those with known ductility and dissipation levels). Yet, for less common structures, for which experience has demonstrated good structural performance, code writers must provide simple rules or guidelines based on the engineering judgment. Designers, have the challenge of nding the classes, creating the most convenient design from technical and economical points of view.3
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Having participated in a building code review committee, it is apparent that code writers ultimately accept the ndings of academia, possibly due to liability concerns, As Ceccotti has explained, these issues will not go away, and their impact on historic structures cannot be denied. Proposed seismic provisions for building additions will affect the historic preservation and the renovation and rehabilitation segments of the construction industry. The application of complicated seismic requirements, which are subject to wide interpretation, will cause the demolition of many existing buildings. For example, to determine the seismic resistance of an existing building accurately, the unit weight and shear capacity of the existing masonry must be known. This may require extensive testing in the eld to obtain design values to be used in the analysis, for which owners often are not willing to pay. Seismic strengthening should not automatically require the installation of a retro tted steel or concrete structural system into a building. Bernard Feilden (1982) has discussed methods of strengthening historic buildings to retain as much historic fabric as possible: Examination of earthquake damage shows that bonding of walls together at the corners is vital, together with the tying of oors and roofs to walls. The insertion of tensile reinforcement with some degree of prestressing to bond elements together give the masonry of historic buildings greater earthquake resistance. 4 Photographs of heavily damaged buildings in Friuli, Italy, after the 1979 earthquake demonstrate the ef ciency of temporary timber bracing. Similar bracing can be employed during repairs to stabilize tall masonry walls. Many owners faced with rehabilitating or adding to an older or historic structure will elect to demolish when faced with engineering fees for evaluation
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