MAIN PROPAGATION EFFECTS OF THE TROPOSPHERE in .NET

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MAIN PROPAGATION EFFECTS OF THE TROPOSPHERE
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(B) Snow is the solid form of water that crystallizes in the atmosphere and falls to the Earth covering permanently or temporarily about 23% of the Earth s surface. At sea level, snow falls usually at higher latitudes, that is, above latitude 35 N and below 35 S. Close to the equator snowfall occurs exclusively in mountain regions, at elevations of 4900 m or higher. The size and shape of the crystals depend mainly on the temperature and the amount of water vapor available as they develop. In colder and drier air, the particles remain smaller and compact. Frozen precipitation has been classi ed into seven forms of snow crystals and three types of particles: graupel, that is, granular snow pellets, (also called soft hail), sleet, (that is partly frozen ice pellets), and hail, for example hard spheres of ice (see details in References [3,36]). (C) Fog is a cloud of small water droplets near ground level and suf ciently dense to reduce horizontal visibility to less than 1000 m. The word fog may also refer to clouds of smoke particles, ice particles, or mixtures of these components. Under similar conditions, but with visibility greater than 1000 m, the phenomenon is termed a mist or haze, depending on whether the obscurity is caused by water drops or solid particles. Fog is formed by the condensation of water vapor on condensation nuclei that are always present in natural air. This happens as soon as the relative humidity of the air exceeds saturation by a fraction of 1%. In highly polluted air the nuclei may grow suf ciently to cause fog at humidities of 95% or less. Three processes can increase the relative humidity of the air: (1) cooling of the air by adiabatic expansion; (2) the mixing of two humid airstreams having different temperatures; and (3) the direct cooling of the air by radiation. According to the physical processes involved in the creation of fogs, there are different kinds of fogs that are usually observed: advection, radiation, inversion, and frontal. We do not enter deeply into the subject of their creation, because this is a subject of meteorology, for which readers may refer to special literature [3,7,24,36]. Here we will only analyze their in uence on radio propagation. (D) Clouds have the dimensions, shape, structure, and texture that are in uenced by the kind of air movements that result in their formation and growth and by the properties of the cloud particles. In settled weather, clouds are small and well scattered. Their horizontal and vertical dimensions are only a kilometer or two. In disturbed weather they cover a large part of the sky, and individual clouds may tower as high as 10 km or more. Clouds often cease their growth only upon reaching the stable stratosphere, producing heavy showers, hail, and thunderstorms. Growing clouds are sustained by upward air currents, which may vary in strength from a few centimeters per second to several meters per second. Considerable growth of the cloud droplets with falling speeds of only about 1 cm/s, leads to their fall through the cloud, reaching the ground as drizzle or rain. Four principal classes are recognized when clouds are classi ed according to the kind of air motions that produce them: (1) layer clouds formed by the widespread regular ascent of air; (2) layer clouds formed by widespread irregular stirring or turbulence; (3) cumuliform clouds formed by penetrative convection; and (4) orographic clouds formed by ascent of air over hills and mountains. The reader who is interested in delving deeper into this subject can nd information in References [7,21,24,36].
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