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[34] Russel, S. T. A., C. W. Boston and T. S. Rappaport, A deterministic approach to predicting microwave diffraction by buildings for micro cellular systems, IEEE Trans. Anten. and Propag., Vol. 41, No. 12, 1993, pp. 1640 1649. [35] Dougherty, H. T., and L. J. Maloney, Application of diffraction by convex surfaces to irregular terrain situations, Radio Phone, Vol. 68B, Feb. 1964, p. 239. [36] Anderson, L. J., and L. G. Trolese, Simpli ed method for computing knife edge diffraction in the shadow region, IRE Trans. Anten. Propagat., Vol. AP-6, July 1958, pp. 281 286.
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Terrestrial Radio Communications
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In this chapter, we consider wave propagation in various terrain environments based on the description of propagation characteristics such as the propagation (or path) loss, L, and the slope parameter g that describe the signal decay law. These main parameters are very crucial in predicting land communication channels. First, in Sections 5.1 and 5.2, we introduce the reader into a brief description of the terrain features and various propagation situations in terrestrial communications related to the terminal antenna positions with respect to building rooftops. In Section 5.3, we continue the description of the propagation channel when the two antennas are placed on a at terrain and under LOS conditions, when a free-space propagation concept can be used and is described by a two-ray model. In Section 5.4, we consider radio propagation in hilly terrain, where we replace the hill by a knife edge and introduce Lee s empirical model. Section 5.5 describes how a single obstruction such as a building is placed above a at terrain. In this case, on the basis of Keller s geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), we present formulas that determine the electromagnetic eld pattern reradiated by the building walls, corners, and roof for dipole transmitting antenna with vertical polarization. The electrical impedance properties of the building walls are taken into account here. Next, in Section 5.6, we present a uni ed approach on how to predict radio losses in rural forested links based on a stochastic model that describes multiscattering effects from trees. This model is compared with standard empirical, analytical, and statistical models. Section 5.7 describes radio propagation in mixed residential areas based on the same stochastic approach, but taking into consideration only a single scattering from houses and trees. Section 5.8 introduces the reader to the problems of radio propagation in
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Radio Propagation and Adaptive Antennas for Wireless Communication Links: Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Ionospheric, by Nathan Blaunstein and Christos Christodoulou Copyright # 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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urban and suburban areas, where we consider two typical situations in the urban scene: a) urban grid-plan buildings distribution with straight crossing rows of streets, and b) urban areas with randomly distributed buildings placed on a rough terrain. Here, we present the uni ed stochastic approach that generalizes the stochastic models presented in Sections 5.6 and 5.7 by accounting for the buildings overlay pro le and effects of diffraction from buildings roofs. We compare this general model with those that are mostly used for predicting loss characteristics in such terrestrial communication links. 5.1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TERRAIN The process of classifying terrain con gurations is a very important stage in the construction of propagation models above the ground surface and, nally, in predicting the signal/wave attenuation (or path loss , de ned in 1) within each speci c propagation channel. These terrain con gurations can be categorized as:     at ground surface; curved, but smooth terrain; hilly terrain; mountains.
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The built-up areas can also be simply classi ed as [1 4]:     rural areas; mixed residential areas; suburban areas; urban areas.
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Several experiments carried out in different built-up areas have shown that there are many speci c factors that must be taken into account to describe speci c propagation phenomena, such as [1 4]: buildings density or terrain coverage by buildings (in percentages); buildings contours or their individual dimensions; buildings average height; positions of buildings with respect to base station and mobile vehicles; positions of both antennas, receiver and transmitter, with respect to the rooftops height;
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