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thoroughly described. The phenomena treated include free-space propagation, propagation above an irregular terrain, in an inhomogeneous and strati ed atmosphere and ionosphere, the re ection, and diffraction by various obstructions (hills, buildings, trees, hydrometeors, turbulences, plasma inhomogeneous structures, etc.), regularly or randomly distributed in an area of communication. Finally, the authors try to show how to create a uni ed approach for predicting the main propagation characteristics for different wireless communication channels using adaptive antenna systems. That means a full prediction of all propagation characteristics not only in space but also in azimuth, elevation, and time delay domains, without which adaptive antennas and their corresponding algorithms cannot be used successfully. The structure of the book is as follows. The main parameters and characteristics of radio propagation links, as well as the challenges in using adaptive antennas, are brie y described in 1. 2 introduces the gures of merit and fundamentals of regular antennas. 3 introduces the physics of electromagnetic wave propagation in random media, based on the principles of statistical mechanics and quantum eld theory, for applications in radio propagation above rough terrains, turbulent atmospheres, and ionospheric plasmas. In 4, we present the electrodynamics of radio propagation in free space, over smooth and rough terrains, based on Huygens principle and Fresnel-zone concept. All aspects of terrestrial radio propagation are covered in 5. First, we start with the description of the in uence of a single building, its shape and roof or wall structures, on the radio pattern surrounding an antenna. Then, a general stochastic approach is used to perform a link budget for different kinds of outdoor communication links: rural, suburban, and urban on the basis of the physical aspects of the terrain features. In 6, the effects of the atmosphere and its features (clouds, fog, hydrometeors, rain, turbulences, etc.) on loss characteristics of any radio signal are described with examples on how to design a link budget for several speci c landatmospheric communication links. In 7, we give the reader information on how an inhomogeneous ionosphere, containing quasi-regular layers, large, average, and small sporadic plasma irregularities, affect radio wave propagation, focusing on path loss and fading. Indoor propagation is discussed in 8, where some models for practical applications in indoor communications are presented through numerous experimental data. 9 describes the main aspects of adaptive (or smart) antenna system technologies, such as antenna array and digital beamforming, focusing on their special applications in terrestrial, atmospheric, and ionospheric radio propagation for wireless mobile, personal, aircraft, and satellite communication links. In 10, a general, three-dimensional, stochastic approach is given to predict the joint angle-of-arrival, elevation-of-arrival, and time-of-arrival ray distribution and the corresponding power spectrum distribution in the space, angle, time, and Doppler frequency domains for different urban environments, using smart antenna technology. Here, we propose a new concept on how to predict the main propagation characteristics of the signal for wireless systems using smart antenna systems. In 11, the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed stochastic approach are discussed via a series of experiments carried out in
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different built-up areas. Then, on the basis of a uni ed stochastic approach, a general algorithm that can be used to develop a link budget and to predict GOS, and which also has to optimize the capacity of the information data stream within different propagation channels, is presented. 12 concentrates on the design of cellular communication networks based on radio propagation phenomena. Several examples are presented and discussed. In 13, we verify the theoretical results described earlier by using more precisely arranged experiments carried out in different urban sites around the world. We do that by focusing our attention on the adaptive antenna operational characteristics in the space, angle, time, and frequency domains. Finally, 14 describes the different approaches, statistical or physical-statistical used today in land-satellite communication links, as well as for mega-cell map performance.
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