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Point #4 90 85 85 80 80 75 Portugal - Osiras: d = 1100m, hT = 93m Attenuation [dB] Portugal - Osiras: d = 1990m, hT = 93m Attenuation [dB] 75 90 70 65 Portugal - Osiras: d = 2150m, hT = 93m Portugal - Osiras: d = 1700m, hT = 93m Attenuation [dB] 100 110 Point #25 Point #41
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FIGURE 11.21(a). Comparison of experimental data with theoretical prediction taking into account shadowing (denoted by diamonds); The other notations are the same as in Fig. 11.14.
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Point #5 95 95 90 90 85 85 80 Portugal - Osiras: d = 1370m, hT = 93m Attenuation [dB]
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Point #9 90 85 80 Portugal - Osiras: d = 1980m, hT = 93m Attenuation [dB] 75 70 65
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FIGURE 11.21(b). The same, as in Fig. 11.21a, but for other experimental sites.
MULTIPATH FADING PHENOMENA IN LAND WIRELESS LINKS
11.2.4. Experimental Veri cation of Slow and Fast Fading During the Seventies and Eighties of the last century, some pioneer experimental and theoretical investigations of spatial-temporal variations of signal strength or power in various built-up environments have been carried out. It was shown that the propagation process within the urban communication link is usually locally stationary in the time domain [14,35,40,44 49]. The spatial variations of the signal passing such a channel have a double nature, the large-scale and the small-scale [40,44,49], which in 1 we de ned as slow and fast fading, respectively, according to the well-known standard. Experimental Veri cation of Slow Fading. As was shown by numerous experimental observations of spatial and temporal uctuations of radio signals in urban communication links, slow fading is observed mostly for higher elevated BS antenna and lower elevated MS antennas compared to roofs of the buildings and are caused by the shadowing effects of buildings surrounding both terminal antennas. Finally, deep shadow zones in communications are created along the radio path in NLOS (clutter) conditions between each BS and MS antenna located within the area of service. A summary of experimental results, obtained in different cities of Israel, was presented in terms of the cross-correlation function of signal amplitude Di d h Ei r1 Ei r2 i for three components of the eld strength (E1 Ex , E2 Ey , E3 Ez ). These components were analyzed by measuring along the radio paths between the terminal antenna located at the point r2 and that at the point r1 , that is versus d jr2 r1 j. The result of this statistical analysis, shown in Figure 11.22, is direct evidence of the existence of such long-scale random variations of signal strength level along the radio path d. These spatial signal variations have been obtained after signal processing of the average signal amplitudes (about 3800 magnitudes of signal strength has been investigated) with the scale of averaging $ 8 10 wavelengths at the frequency band from 80 to 400 MHz to exclude effects of fast fading due to random interference between multipath eld components. As can be seen from Figure 11.22, there are two sharp maxima which correspond to two scales of signal spatial variations, L1 15 20 m and L2 80 100 m, respectively. As was shown experimentally [14,44 49], the rst scale can be related to the average length of gaps between buildings. It determines the socalled light zones observed within these gaps. The second scale, according to References [14,44 49], can be related to the large dark zones, which follow the illuminated zones, and can be explained only by the diffraction from buildings located along and across the radio path. Other experimental investigations carried out during the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s proved this principal result, which describes a nature of slow signal fading in urban communication links. In other words, all referred experimental works have shown that the effect of shadowing is a realistic cause for long-term variations of signal strength (or power) after its averaging with window scale exceeding several wavelengths during the statistical processing. Moreover, as was obtained