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For weakly magnetized plasma, when o ) oHe (oHe is the hydro-frequency of plasma electrons), and for high radiation frequencies, when o ) ope (ope is the plasma frequency, ope e2 N=e0 me 1=2 , e and me are the charge and mass of electron, respectively, and e0 is the average dielectric parameter of the ambient ionospheric plasma), the coef cient of absorption can be presented in the following form: k
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2 1 ope nem nei 2 o o2 nem nei 2
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Here, nem and nei are the frequencies of interactions of plasma electrons with neutral molecules and atoms, and with ions, respectively, de ned in References [8 10]. To estimate losses due to absorption, that is, the part of energy of radio wave that is absorbed in the quasi-regular layers of the ionosphere, from D to F, a special value of absorption in decibels (dB) is usually introduced [7 12] Ao 10 log o2 nem nei I0 4:3 pe % ds I c o2 nem nei 2 7:21
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The expected value of absorption at the ionospheric radio links is estimated usually by using the measured radiometric absorption along radio traces at the xed frequency and by experimental knowledge of frequency dependence of absorption determined by (7.15). We do not enter into details on how to measure these parameters and address the reader to special literature [8 10]. Group Delay. Due to the effect of refraction of the radio wave passing through the ionosphere, the resulting phase difference between waves expected in LOS direction and that observed really in refracted direction is a function of the corresponding shift in physical path length, r (in m) [1 3]: r 40:3 N f2 7:22
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The shift in physical path length leads to a corresponding time delay, t (in sec) [1 3] t r 40:3 2 N c cf 7:23
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We can use this formula as a de nition of the time delay of radio waves passing through the quasi-homogeneous ionospheric plasma. Dispersion. As follows from (7.23), the time delay of waves arriving at the receiver is frequency dependent. Thus, the dispersion properties of radio waves passing
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through a homogeneous plasma layer can be determined by a derivative of the time delay t over the frequency (in s/Hz), or according to (7.23) [1 3], dt 80:6 3 N df cf 7:24
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For the purpose of satellite communication, using knowledge of radio channel bandwidth f , one can obtain the differential time delay as [1 3] t dt 80:6 f 3 f N df cf 7:25
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This parameter describes the delay-spread of the signal total intensity due to the effect of refraction of radio wave in the quasi-homogeneous layered ionosphere. Ionospheric Scintillation. There is a wind presented in the ionosphere, just as in the troposphere considered in 6, which causes rapid variations in the local electron density, particularly close to sunset. These density variations cause changes in the refraction of the radio wave in the Earth satellite channel and hence of changes in signal levels. Portions of the ionosphere then act like lenses, cause focusing, defocusing, and divergence of the wave and hence lead to signal level variations, that is, the signal scintillation (see Section 7.2). To summarize the main propagation effects through the ionosphere as a plasma continuum we must follow the results presented above. As follows from the literature [1 3], for frequencies beyond the range of 20 to 50 GHz, which are usually used for construction of Earth satellite communication links, the effects of Faraday rotation are negligible (about a dozen of degrees), the propagation delay is very small (a dozen nanoseconds), and the radio frequency dispersion is very weak (a dozen picoseconds per one megahertz), so we can withdraw them from computations. As for attenuation, signal amplitude, and phase scintillations (i.e. fading), these effects are strongly dependent on nonregular features of the ionosphere, usually called inhomogeneities or irregularities [1 12]. Accumulative effects of which created inhomogeneous structure of the ionosphere, consisting of nonregular and sporadic layers. This will be a subject of further discussions.
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7.2. EFFECTS OF THE INHOMOGENEOUS IONOSPHERE ON RADIO PROPAGATION Let us now introduce the reader to some very important thin effects on radio propagation that occur in the ionospheric inhomogeneous plasma medium consisting of different kinds of irregularities in a wide range of scales: from small to large [7 12]. The ionosphere varies randomly in time and space such that the amplitude and phase of propagating waves may similarly uctuate randomly in these domains. The
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