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FIGURE 7.2. Height distribution of the neutral content of the ionosphere.
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to the fore mentioned, here, up to ze 1000 2000 km, formula (7.1) is valid. In this range, the main components are atoms of nitrogen and oxygen created by the chemical processes of dissociations of the corresponding molecules: N2 ! N N and O2 ! O O. At altitudes of more than 500 600 km, in magnetosphere, concentrations of helium, He, and hydrogen, H, increase quickly. Finally, at altitudes of exosphere of more than 1000 1500 km, atoms of hydrogen become predominant [4,6,7] (see Fig. 7.2, where the height distribution of all neutral components of the ionosphere is summarized). The ion content of ionospheric plasma is changed widely depending on latitude F of the Earth. Thus at the middle latitudes, jFj < 55 , it is not changed drastically, but at the high latitudes, jFj ! 55 60 , a full concentration of ions decreases rapidly with height. In the middle latitude ionosphere, at the height of the D layer, the main components of plasma are ions NO and O , and at the heights 2 of the E and F layers are ions of oxygen O . At altitudes of more than 300 km, plasma also contains components of He , H , N , N , which with the main ions 2 mentioned above determine the total plasma content in the ionosphere. The structure of the ion content of plasma in the polar (high-latitude) ionosphere is more complicated. We do not enter deeply into this subject and refer the reader to excellent books [4,6,7]. The key parameter that has an affect on radio communications is the total electron and ions concentration N measured in free electrons number per cubic meter, because the ionospheric plasma is quasi-neutral and in each of its region, with dimensions larger than the Debye radius (de nition can be found in References [5,7 10]), the concentration of electrons, Ne , is equal to the total concentration of various ions, Ni , that is, Ne % Ni N. The variations of N with height in the ionosphere for a typical day and night is shown in Figure 7.3, extracted from References [9,10]. It must be noted that the total content of charge particles, the electrons and ions, depend on the processes that create the structure of the
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h, km 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 E 1010 10 9 N0, m 3 E 1011 1012 1013 Night F Day F
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FIGURE 7.3. Ionospheric plasma density versus height for the ionosphere above the ground surface.
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ionosphere such as the solar and cosmic rays radiation, wave radiation, photochemistry processes, which nally determine the ionization-recombination balance in the ionosphere. The degree of ionization of the ionospheric plasma is determined by the ratio of concentration of the plasma particles N and that of the neutral molecules and atoms Nm . In the lower ionosphere (z < 100 120 km), the degree of plasma ionization is very small (N=Nm $ 10 8 10 6 ) and increases with height h (for h > 300 km N=Nm $ 10 4 10 3 ). At the exospheric heights of h > 1000 km, the degree of ionization N=Nm ! 1, that is, plasma becomes fully ionized [4 10]. The temperature of electrons, Te , and ions, Ti , strongly depends on daytime and increases with height. Thus, at lower ionospheric heights, temperature of electrons is close to temperature of ions, that is, Te % Ti , whereas at the upper ionosphere (z > 200 250 km) the temperature of electrons can exceed 1.5 2 times the temperature of ions [7,9]. More detailed information about the structure and properties of the ionosphere, mid-latitude and high-latitude can be found in References [4 7]. Main Characteristics of the Ionospheric Plasma. The characteristics, which are functions of the main parameters of the plasma such as concentration, content, and temperature, are follow. They are the frequency of interactions (collisions) of charged particles with neutral molecules and atoms, between charged particles, the length of their free path between interactions, coef cients of diffusion and drift. All these characteristics determine the dynamic processes, diffusion, and drift of plasma in ambient electrical and magnetic eld; they occurred in the ionosphere and were caused on formation of large-scale and small-scale plasma irregularities, which are the main sources of fading radio signals in the ionosphere. We will
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