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Extensive cyclization could occur by a corresponding sequential process
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R LIV
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where R is either an initiator species or the propagating carbocation LIV. 8-10d Other Polymerizations
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There have been various attempts to achieve stereoselective polymerization of 1,3-dienes and also alkenes by imposing physical restraints on the monomer by means other than the initiator, including polymerizations of crystalline monomer, monomer monolayers, canal complexes, and liquid crystals [Allcock and Levin, 1985; Audisio et al., 1984; Bowden et al., 1978; DiSilvestro et al., 1987; Finkelmann et al., 1978; Miyata et al., 1977; Naegele and Ringsdorf, 1977; Nagahama and Matsumoto, 2001]. However, these polymerizations have generally been less stereoselective than those achieved using the traditional Ziegler Natta, metallocene, and other initiators.
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The importance of coordination polymerization of alkenes and dienes is evident when it is noted that more than 40 billion pounds of polymers were produced by this route in the United States in 2001. This corresponds to 35 40% of the total industrial production of polymers from monomers containing carbon carbon double bonds. 8-11a Process Conditions
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Commerical polymerizations of ethylene, propene, and other a-ole ns are carried out as slurry (suspension) and gas-phase processes [Beach and Kissin, 1986; Diedrich, 1975; Lieberman and Barbe, 1988; Magovern, 1979; Vandenberg and Repka, 1977; Weissermel et al., 1975]. Solution polymerization has been used in the past for ethylene polymerization at 140 150 C, pressures of up to $8 MPa (1 MPa 145 psi 9.869 atm), using a solvent such as cyclohexane. The solution process with its higher temperatures was employed for polymerization with the relatively low ef ciency early Phillips initiators. (Polyethylene, but not the initiator, is soluble in the reaction medium under the process conditions.) The development of a variety of high-ef ciency initiators has allowed their use in lower-temperature suspension and gas-phase processes, which are more advantageous from many
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STEREOCHEMISTRY OF POLYMERIZATION
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viewpoints (energy consumption, product workup). Solution polymerization is limited at present to producing low-molecular-weight polyethylene. Both traditional Ziegler Natta and metal oxide Phillips-type initiators are used in suspension polymerizations (Secs. 8-4a, 8-4j) [Kaminsky, 2001]. Both types of initiators are used for ethylene, but only the traditional Ziegler Natta initiators are used for propene since Phillips-type initiators do not yield stereoselective polymerizations. The use of gas-phase processes has increased greatly since their initial use in 1968 for ethylene polymerization. The process has been extended to ethylene copolymers and to polypropene. The absence of solvent accomplished major economies for the gas-phase process relative to suspension polymerization. Pressures of about 2 3 MPa and temperatures in the range 70 105 C are employed in both uidized-bed and stirred-bed reactors [Brockmeier, 1987]. The reaction medium is a well-stirred mixture of initiator and polymer powders together with gaseous monomer. After emerging from the reactor, polymer is separated from unreacted monomer, and the latter is recycled. Temperature control and temperature homogeneity throughout the reactor are critically important. The temperature must be maintained below the softening temperature of the polymer to prevent agglomeration of the polymer product into large lumps. Agglomeration leads to an inability to control reactor temperature, and this results in deterioration of the product as well as reactor shutdown. Highly active initiators based on both chromium and titanium are employed. For ethylene polymerization titanium-based initiators yield narrower molecular weight distributions than do chromium-based initiators [Karol, 1989]. Metallocene initiators reached commercialization near the beginning of the twenty- rst century. These initiators probably accounted for about 5% of the total production of HDPE, LLDPE, and PP in 2002. The relative importance of metallocene initiators compared to the traditional Ziegler Natta and Phillips type initiators will increase in the future. 8-11b High-Density Polyethylene
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Polyethylene produced by traditional Ziegler Natta and Phillips-type initiators differs structurally from that obtained by radical polymerization (Sec. 3-14a) in having a much lower degree of branching (0.5 3 vs. 15 30 methyl groups per 500 monomer units). The two polyethylenes are often referred to as linear and branched polyethylenes, respectively. The lower degree of branching results in higher crystallinity (70 90% vs. 40 60%), higher density (0.94 0.96 vs. 0.91 0.93 g mL 1 ), and higher crystalline melting temperature (133 138 vs. 105 115 C) for linear polyethylene. The polyethylenes produced by coordination and radical polymerizations are also referred to as high-density (HDPE) and low-density (LDPE) polyethylenes, respectively. Compared to LDPE, HDPE has increased tensile strength, stiffness, chemical resistance, and upper use temperature combined with decreased low-temperature impact strength, elongation, permeability, and resistance to stress cracking. About 14 billion pounds of HDPE were produced in the United States in 2001. The two polyethylenes complement each other as about 8 billion pounds of LDPE were also produced. Most HDPEs have number-average molecular weights of 50,000 250,000. These materials are used in a wide range of applications [Beach and Kissin, 1986; Juran, 1989]. The largest market (40%) consists of blow-molded products such as bottles (milk, food, detergent), housewares, toys, and pails. Injection-molded objects similar to those produced by blow molding constitute about 30% of the total market. Extruded products make up most of the remainder of the market for HDPE. This includes lm for producing grocery and merchandise bags and food packaging, sheet for truck bed liners and luggage, pipe, tubing, and wire
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