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course, rising to average 3.78% while rates in all the other principal countries declined further. Switzerland did not experience the sustained extremely low short-term rates that prevailed in most European countries in the late nineteenth century. SWEDISH INTEREST RATES In 1812 Sweden joined Russia in the coalition against Napoleon and acquired Norway in the final peace settlement. Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century Sweden was involved in no wars. The chief political problem was the union with Norway, which, however, was not dissolved until 1905 and then without armed conflict. During the second half of this century the Swedish constitution was revised to provide a popular government and a limited monarchy. During the last three decades, Sweden, which had been primarily agricultural, enjoyed a rapid commercial development. However, during this century Sweden was never an international financial center. The Bank of Sweden (Riksbank), in spite of its long history from 1656, antedating the Bank of England, did not become a true central bank until 1897. (472) The history of Swedish interest rates in this century is confined to rates charged by the Bank of Sweden and the effective rates of interest paid by the government on its long-term and short-term loans. In 12, Table 17 reviewed the rates of interest that the Bank of Sweden was permitted by legislative action to charge during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Apparently the rate had been forced down late in the eighteenth century from 6 to 3% at a time when other European rates were rising. A discount rate of 6% in 1816 is the earliest nineteenth-century quotation. A rate of 5% is quoted for 1824 without the implication that these rates prevailed in the intervening years. In 1830 rates of 4 6% are quoted, depending on the type of collateral: 4% for loans on gold, silver, and real estate; 5% for loans on government paper and deposit receipts; and a rate up to 6% for loans on bills. Similar rates are quoted for 1835 and 1841, while a range of 4 5% is quoted for 1845, 1848, 1851, and 1854. These rates were set by legislation, but in 1856 the bank was set free to vary its rates from 4 to 6% (later to 7%). The subsequent variations of the discount rate of the Bank of Sweden are presented in Table 35 and Chart 29, together with a weighted annual average of these rates. Swedish discount rates remained relatively high throughout this century. The average for the later 1850 s was 5.09%, and for the 1860 s it was even higher at 5.53%. In 1866 a rate as high as 7% was once quoted and the low for the decade was 41 2%. Thereafter rates declined to an average of 5% in the 1870 s and 4.17% in the 1880 s. Like Swiss rates, and unlike other European rates, the Swedish discount rate tended to rise during
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Table 35 Interest Rates in Sweden: Nineteenth Century
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the last decade, the average moving up from 4.17 to 4.55%. This was far above most other European short-term rates. At no time did the Swedish discount rate decline even near to the very low levels which at times prevailed elsewhere. Furthermore, Swedish discount rates remained always above the rates quoted on long-term obligations of the government. Swedish government bonds are not quoted here at market rates of interest. Only their nominal and effective rates at time of flotation are
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OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
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quoted. The earliest bond quotation is for 1855 when 4s were sold at 100 to yield 4% at a time when the discount rate ranged from 4% to 5%. By 1858, when the discount rate was up to 5 6%, the government sold 41 2s, to yield 5.27%. A rate as high as 8.11% was paid by the government in 1865 on a short-term issue of 6s, but no such high rate was paid on longterm bonds. The highest long-term rate was 5.96%, in 1868, on an issue of 5s. By 1875 long 41 2s were sold, to yield 4.76%, and by 1890 long 31 2s were sold, to yield only 3.64% when the discount rate was 4%. This was the low rate recorded for Swedish government bond offerings in this century. In the last decade bond offering yields apparently remained at around their lows, although the discount rate was tending to move moderately higher.
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