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THE NETHERLANDS Background. The history of the Dutch as an independent nation was resumed in 1815. The treaty of peace which liquidated Napoleon s Empire reunited Belgium (the Austrian Netherlands) with the provinces of the former Dutch Republic to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands under the Dutch House of Orange. This reunion was unpopular with the Belgians because of religious, cultural, and economic differences and because of the Dutch political supremacy. The burden of the public debt was equally divided, even though in 1814 the debt of Holland was many times greater than that of more populous Belgium. In 1830, shortly after the July Revolution in Paris, the Belgians revolted. With the help of France and with the agreement of Britain and other powers, they again separated from the Dutch provinces and established the Kingdom of Belgium in 1831. The political history of the Kingdom of the Netherlands for the rest of the nineteenth century was peaceful. After the European disturbances of 1848 a new Dutch constitution created a limited monarchy, somewhat on the British model. During the latter part of the century there was great commercial expansion and much internal development. Only then did modern commercial banking and large-scale industry appear. The Dutch overseas empire in the East Indies and the West Indies, which had been restored after 1815, was actively developed as a source of great wealth. The financial history of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the nineteenth century was not a history of innovation and international
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leadership, such as was the history of the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century and the early part of the eighteenth century. Following the financial disasters of the late eighteenth century and the period of French domination, the Dutch quickly reverted to stable and orthodox financial policies. Their funded debt had been consolidated in the French and English manner. A new central bank was organized. Dutch finance was fitted nicely into the accepted European system under the leadership of London. The financial methods then employed in Holland could be called an imitation of the eminently successful British methods, but their sources were not quite so simple. The British system of national debt had in fact been copied from earlier Dutch innovations; it had been adopted and modified by the French, who in turn influenced the terms of the new Dutch financial reorganization. For the purposes of interest rate history, however, the essential components of the system were three: (a) a public which saved regularly and sought safe income from its savings through the obligations of a trusted and respected government, (b) a funded national debt largely in the form of uniform and marketable perpetual annuities, and (c) a money market designed to promote trade and dominated by a central bank which provided funds at varying rates of interest. Interest Rates. Dutch interest rates declined sharply during the nineteenth century after 1815, as did interest rates in other European countries. The decline in Netherlands rates was especially pronounced in the market yields on the long-term perpetual debt. However, unlike the yields in Britain, France and other countries, the nineteenth-century lows of long-term Dutch rates were not new historic lows. They did not quite
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reach the 21 2% level attained at least once in eighteenth-century Holland, although in the last decade of the nineteenth century they got close to it. In contrast, the nineteenth-century low rates on British funds and French rentes were far below their respective eighteenth-century lows. At the very end of the eighteenth century the financial disasters of the Dutch Republic and conquest by France had brought the price of the 21 2% perpetual annuities of the Province of Holland down from 991 2 in 1762 to 36 in 1798, a rise in yield from 2.51% to 6.95%. These are random quotations and are not necessarily highs or lows. During the French rule the debt of the Dutch central government had been consolidated. Our earliest consecutive quotations begin in 1814. Then the range of the Dutch 21 2% perpetuals was 38 high and 301 2 low, which represented yields of 6.56% and 8.20%, respectively. These were strangely high rates for Holland; they were above the peak rates on British consols, but they were below the rates on French rentes prevailing at the same time. The nineteenth-century history of the 21 2% Dutch perpetuals is given in Table 28 and Chart 17. After 1814 the market for Dutch perpetuals at first recovered only slowly. However, it moved up sharply in 1824 to 621 4 high and in 1830 to 665 8, to yield 3.75%. This price was not exceeded until 1881. The war with the Belgians in 1830 1831 was accompanied by a sharp decline in the 21 2s to a price of 34, to yield 7.35%. However, the price recovered rapidly and reached 581 2 in 1835 and 651 4 in 1845, to yield 3.83%. During the disturbance of 1848 the Dutch perpetuals again declined sharply from a high of 60 in 1847 to a low of 34 in 1848, to yield 7.35%; they were again back to their low price range of 1814. This disturbance, however, was brief in the Netherlands. By 1849 the perpetuals were back to 551 2, and by 1852 at 661 2 they about duplicated their high price level of early 1830. After 1852 the price declined irregularly for nineteen years, with sharp temporary drops in 1854, 1859, 1866 1867, and 1870. It reached a low during the Franco-Prussian War of 481 2, to yield 5.15%. Up to 1870, therefore, the nineteenth was not a century of low long-term interest rates for the Dutch, such as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries had been. From 1872 until 1895, however, the price of Dutch perpetuals rose almost steadily. In this period interest rates declined in most European countries. The perpetuals reached a high of 96 in 1895, to yield 2.60%. By the end of the century, however, they were down to a price of 791 2, to yield 3.15%. Chart 18 compares the annual yields of the Dutch perpetual 21 2s with those of British consols during the nineteenth century. The Dutch long rates were usually far higher than the British long rates. This was in
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