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Table 3 Summary of Roman and Provincial Interest Rates
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The Code of Justinian dominated the subsequent span of Byzantine history. From time to time all interest was prohibited, but subsequently the laws of Justinian were reinstated. There were slight modifications in the rates based on changes in currency denominations. In the ninth century, however, the limits were raised from 8 to 111 8%. (135)
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ll of the caveats that were elaborated in the introduction to this book apply with special force to the whole body of data on ancient interest rates. Perhaps each caveat should be repeated with each ancient quotation, but the reader would soon be bored. Furthermore, the danger of overworking such data becomes even greater when mere historical narrative is supplemented by an attempt to analyze trends. It would be safer to omit analysis altogether, but much would be lost. Nothing resembling a modern time series of exactly comparable interest rates is available from antiquity. There are no rates on comparable credit forms quoted day after day or month after month or year after year. The preceding chapters have presented data which may be categorized as follows: 1. Spot rates on specific loan transactions. These by themselves do not establish the rate quoted as typical of that year, much less of that century, but they do serve to support other data. 2. Estimates by historians of prevailing interest rates at a given time and place for certain types of loans (sometimes vaguely defined). These were derived presumably from an examination of a number of spot rates or from contemporary comment that a certain rate was high and another rate was low. 3. Legal limits. These are factual enough and usually provide a good indication of what was considered reasonable at the time of the legistion. But often there are enormous time gaps between legislation and little information on the no doubt variable degree of enforcement. Such data obviously do not permit short-term trend analysis. The
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question is whether they permit long-term trend analysis or international comparisons or even general judgments on levels of interest rates. When we consider the great range of interest rates on prime marketable securities in our own century, we may wonder what significance should be attached to the assertion, for example, that in Athens in the fourth century B.C. the normal rate for best credits was 10 12%. It is especially when such estimates are placed as they are here in columns, one century under another and sometimes even charted, that there appears to be an implication of uniformity and universality which may be unwarranted by our knowledge. Finally, gaps in the data tempt the analytical mind to interpolations which may be erroneous. These doubts, however, may be based too much on false analogy with the volatility of the modern market rate structure. A consideration of the differences, as well as similarities, over the ages may lead to a meaningful use of these ancient data. The ancient interest rates quoted here were not volatile money market rates of interest. It seems probable that at times, such as in ancient Athens at the height of her commercial activity, something like a fluctuating money market existed, with daily bargaining among merchants and traders for credit at a price. Laissez faire was the policy, and sharp wits were competing for every small advantage. Bargaining was not beneath the dignity of the Greek, and survival amidst intense and active competition was the stake. And yet there was no daily press to record such activity. No doubt, over long periods market rates of interest influenced the type of rates which have come down to us, but our data are not market rates. They are mainly rates of a traditional and stable sort. Up to recently in the United States many types of interest rates fluctuated very sluggishly. A 6% tradition lasted for at least two centuries. Usury limits generally lasted unchanged until the 1960 s. The rates on bank loans charged by banks far removed from money market centers and from Big Business were relatively stable for long periods. Personal small loan rates rarely changed except with legislation. The normal rates, which are frequently quoted for Mesopotamia, Greece, and Rome, appear for the most part to be rates paid for conventional short-term personal loans, usually but not always secured, and often secured on real estate. A difference in rate for differences in term is rarely apparent from the data. As business organizations of size and complexity did not exist, these were loans to persons or to partnerships, probably most often to meet personal needs but sometimes to finance trade or industry. The quotations are generally for best credits. This assertion by historians is supported by the risk rates which, when the law allowed, ran up far higher. There also are pawnshop rates and loan shark rates which are far higher than the normal rates. These latter, therefore, were probably well secured, either by land or movable valuables or by the established
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