Prices and Yields of Long-Term Dutch Government Securities: Twentieth Century in .NET

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Table 64 Prices and Yields of Long-Term Dutch Government Securities: Twentieth Century
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Table 64
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EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA SINCE 1900
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Table 64
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while the 1935 1946 lows of American long rates were well below their nineteenth-century lows. One noticeable difference is that Dutch longterm rates in the 1950 s did not rise to levels near their 1920 highs, while rates in many other countries did. The impression up to 1960 given by Chart 60 is that of oscillations in a narrowing range, with a firm minimum
WESTERN EUROPE, GERMANY, AND ITALY, TWENTIETH CENTURY
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around 2.75% and a declining maximum: 8.20% in 1814; 7.35% in 1831 and 1848; 6.10% in 1920, and 3.81% in 1951. After 1955, however, Dutch long-term bond yields rose sharply, as did yields in all countries, about doubling from 1955 to 1968 and nearly doubling again between 1968 and 1981, when they reached 11.55%. Thus the age-long pattern of fluctuation in a band was decisively broken, and Dutch yields reached their highest recorded level for several centuries. No precise series of long-term Dutch interest rates has been presented for the years before 1814. However, scraps of information on longterm Dutch annuity rates were reported in earlier chapters back to the sixteenth century. Since the Dutch Republic was a pioneer in developing low European interest rates, the following attempt at generalizing these early scraps of information and combining them with more precise data on modern rates seems worth the risk of error. The lowest yield quotations available for long-term Dutch debt instruments over the centuries are shown in the table below. Lowest Reported Dutch Long-Term Interest Rates
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If such a table can be taken as a rough guide, it appears that twentiethcentury low rates in Holland were not much below the lows reported for the eighteenth century. In every other country examined, nineteenth- or twentieth-century low rates were well below earlier low rates. It is not necessary to claim valid comparability of these early scraps with modern quotations to conclude that Dutch rates were very low, very early, and that the low-yield periods of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were not novel to the Dutch, as they were to the Americans and to most other peoples. As for high yields, which are sometimes hard to trace during periods of invasion and crisis, no rates higher than 8% are reliably reported during several centuries, and 8% was reached only during the Napoleonic invasion. By comparison, the 1981 peak was about 12%.
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EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA SINCE 1900
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Another view of the trends of Dutch long-term interest rates in the twentieth century is obtained from Chart 61, which compares yields on the long-term Dutch government bonds with yields on American corporate bonds. The yields on these Dutch government bonds in the early twentieth century were usually below the American corporate bond yields, above British consol yields, and close to the yields on French rentes. The Dutch yields rose during the first two decades with the other yields. By 1920 they were slightly higher than the American yields, about equal to the French yields, and below the English yields. In the 1920 s Dutch yields did not rise further, as did French yields; they declined with, but much more than, American and English yields. They fell below 4% in 1925 and stayed there. There was no flurry in 1929 and only a brief rise in 1931. During the early 1930 s the Dutch yields remained well below the American yields. However, they did not decline as sharply as did English and American yields after 1931, nor did they go so low in 1935 and 1946. When, after 1937, American yields plunged below 3%, Dutch yields rose with other European yields until the outbreak of World War II. During the period of occupation, Dutch yields declined again to 3%, just as English and French yields declined during the war, but remained far above American yields. After 1946, Dutch yields, like all other yields, rose, but far less than the yields in many other countries. For a few years after the war, perpetual 21 2s were supported by the privilege of turning them in as payment of
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