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All this was carried out while Mr. Homer was seeking without success some inclusive record of the history of all sorts of interest rates and bond yields. Without such a record, he had to gather material laboriously from an enormous variety of sources. From time to time, some serious gaps were filled in by excellent studies published by the National Bureau of Economic Research and other persons and organizations, but all were limited in scope. After twenty years of collecting and analyzing the data and seeking in vain for an organized study of interest rates, the idea presented itself to Mr. Homer of collating all the interest-rate data collected for business purposes into some sort of publication that might be useful to others. How far back should the study be carried What came before the London market of 1752 What about the history of the famous French rentes What of the possibility that the English money market was itself merely a copy of earlier continental markets What was Dutch finance Were there useful precedents to be found by looking far back into antiquity Business considerations continued to motivate Mr. Homer s search. At some point, however, he admitted that purely historical curiosity was added. Few business or professional persons have no curiosity about the history of their calling. Doctors defer to Hippocrates and lawyers quote Demosthenes. Why should not those who finance their communities economic life be as fully aware as history permits of the antiquity of their economic function For these reasons, this history has evolved over the years from very practical beginnings. The first edition traced the history of interest rates from 1960 back to antiquity. The second edition carried the story forward to 1975, a period that saw interest rates in leading financial centers advance to what were then record highs. After that edition appeared, interest rates and market yields continued their rise to dramatic new highs in 1981 and 1982. These new record highs made the previous highs of the 1970 s appear moderate indeed. As the 1990 s began, rates and yields were much lower than they had been a decade earlier. In that context they appeared moderate. The student of interest rate history could note, however, that the moderate rates of 1990 were about the same as the thenrecord rates of 1974, shortly before the second edition of this history went to press. The 1990 s and early 2000 s brought further reductions in rates, down to levels last seen in the 1940 s, before the first edition appeared. Perhaps a future edition will record that interest rates reached the lowest levels at any time during the life of this book, or even the lowest ever recorded. Or perhaps not. Whatever the future may bring, the reader will discover, as the authors did, an exciting drama unfolding in the rises and falls of interest rates throughout recorded history.
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PREHISTORIC AND PRIMITIVE CREDIT AND INTEREST
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n historical times credit preceded the coining of money by over two thousand years. Coinage is dated from the first millennium B.C., but old Sumerian documents, circa 3000 B.C., reveal a systematic use of credit based on loans of grain by volume and loans of metal by weight. Often these loans carried interest. In prehistoric times, even before the development of common measures of value or of mediums of exchange, credit probably existed. There are many ethnological instances of credit in kind in communities where no trace of any medium of exchange or even standard of value can be discovered. Credit existed from the very earliest phases of economic activity, even before the evolution of barter proper. (1) When we consider credit in its broadest meaning we can infer something of its earliest forms. Primitive credit need only have consisted of a loan of seed to a son or brother or neighbor until harvest time or a loan of an animal or of a tool or of food. Such transfers are called gifts if no repayment is expected, loans if repayment is expected, and loans at interest if the repayment of a certain amount more than was loaned is expected. These transactions in kind required no money, no exchange, and no barter. Today a transfer without immediate quid pro quo is usually classified in one of three ways: a gift, a loan, or a theft. Those of us who remember our dormitory years know that the distinction between gift, loan, and theft is not always clear. The conventional euphemism is loan, and it is understood that the aggrieved party, whose necktie is missing, may reciprocate at a convenient opportunity by borrowing something belonging
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