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3.2 Chaotic Switching
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Chaotic masking is not totally efficient, because only a part of the transmitted power carries information, most being used to mask information. Chaotic switching (also known as chaotic shift keying) allows a higher level of efficiency and security [13].
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Communications With Chaotic Semiconductor Lasers
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Figure 24.7 Example of a digital image.
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Figure 24.8 (a) Transmitted and (b) recovered images.
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In this case, the information is binary and switches the transmitted signal between two different attractors associated with different chaotic receivers. This scheme is summarized in Figure 24.9. The transmitter is switched between two different chaotic orbits by modulating the supply current of the laser by the bit stream to be transmitted; bits M1 and M2 correspond to different pump currents P1 and P2 . Decoding at the receiver is performed by using two replicas of the chaotic drive, the first pumped at current P1 and the second at P2 . The received signal is sent to both decoders; however, only the one having the pump current corresponding to the transmitted bit will synchronize. Signals E1 and E2 are then obtained as the difference between the output of each decoder and the chaotic received signal. Finally, the transmitted bits can be conveniently recovered, detecting which of E1 or E2 is zero. In Figure 24.10, the outputs E1 , E2 of the decoders for bit M1 and M2 are compared to the transmitted signal (at the bottom). Signal E1 /E0 falls to zero when system 1 synchronizes (bit M1 transmitted), while it is chaotic when it does not (bit M2 transmitted). Signal E2 /E0 from the other decoder has a complementary trend. It should be noticed that the selection of the laser parameters is critical, since it must guarantee both secure communication and efficient decoding. Too closely spaced orbits would require a very precise matching between transmitter and receiver; in addition, synchronization transients would be long. On the contrary, too distant orbits would allow an attacker to make a working copy of the receiver, even without an accurate knowledge of the parameters.
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Chaotic drive
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Chaotic receiver 1 E E R1 D
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Receiver system 2
Figure 24.9 Scheme of secure communication based on chaotic switching.
4. Conclusions
In this chapter, two chaotic schemes for cryptographic communications with semiconductor lasers have been described. Both systems consist of a network of chaotic semiconductor lasers subjected to phase-conjugate feedback which, under the appropriate conditions, can be synchronized. This ability of chaotic systems to synchronize can be successfully applied to secure communications. The first scheme, chaotic masking, is simpler to implement as it requires only two systems, while the second scheme, chaotic switching, is more efficient. The proposed methods improve substantially many other methods based on hardware for tasks such as access control, integrity, authentication and nonrepudiation. In particular, these systems are neither hard to make nor very expensive, they are very portable, they support much more information than any other communication system and finally, they are impossible to duplicate with current technology. Potential applications of the methods presented in this chapter include all communications systems based on semiconductor lasers, ranging from e-safety on network systems such as the Internet and the Web, to security in distributed environments. The proposed methods also offer a reasonable alternative for authentication to the methods based on biometrics. We remark that both systems are completely digital, thus allowing perfect matching (at the coding level) of the receiver to the transmitter to be obtained. In addition, chaotic masking and switching have been shown to be more secure than masking with noise, since in the latter case, data bits can be extracted by using a correlator. This is not possible for chaotic lasers, since the correlation time of the
Communications With Chaotic Semiconductor Lasers
1 E2/E0
1 1 E1/E0
1 M2 M1 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400
time (in ns)
Figure 24.10 Output signals E1 /E0 and E2 /E0 showing demodulation of bits M1 and M2 . bits and of the chaos are almost identical. Furthermore, because the systems do not include electrical feedback (they are fully optical), these schemes are suitable for high-speed optical transmission. Finally, it should be remarked that fiber dispersion and nonlinearities can deteriorate the transmitted signal and make decoding impossible [26]. Although not included here because of space limitation, we have checked that, under the appropriate circumstances (such as a fiber length not longer than 50 km and a loss coefficient = 0 2 dB/km, among others), this does not occur here. However, further research is required to analyze the response of the systems under less favorable conditions. Our current work on this issue is still in progress and the obtained results will be reported elsewhere.