Architectural Views of a System in .NET

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36.3 Architectural Views of a System
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Architectural Description (AD)
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SYSTEM or SYSTEM or System Entity System Entity
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Requirements Requirements Architecture Architecture (Multi-Level) (Multi-Level)
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Operations Operations Architecture Architecture (Multi-Level) (Multi-Level)
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Behavioral Behavioral Architecture Architecture (Multi-Level) (Multi-Level)
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Physical Physical Architecture Architecture (Multi-Level) (Multi-Level)
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Figure 36.5 System Solution Viewpoints and Views
SPS or Entity Item Development Specification
System or Entity Architecture
Requirements Requirements Architecture Architecture
(Multi-Level) (Multi-Level)
Requirements Allocation Flow Down (Capabilities, Characteristics, Design & Construction Constraints, etc.)
Contract Statement of Work (CSOW)
Requirements Traceability
Operations Operations Architecture Architecture
(Multi-Level) (Multi-Level)
Phases & Modes Mission Operations Scenarios Event Timelines Budgets & Margins
Contract Work Breakdown Structure (CWBS)
Requirements Traceability
Logical/ Logical/ Behavioral Behavioral Architecture Architecture
(Multi-Level) (Multi-Level)
Logical Entities Entity Capabilities Behavioral Models Algorithmic Models Budgets & Margins
Integrated Master Plan (IMP)/ Schedule (IMS)
Requirements Traceability
Physical Physical Architecture* Architecture*
(Multi-Level) (Multi-Level)
* Assembly Drawings, Schematics, Product Structure, Bill of Materials (BOM), Code Listings, etc.
Figure 36.6 System Architecture Element Relationships
Architectural View Interdependencies
The requirements, operations, behavioral, and physical architectures are highly integrated and interdependent shown in Figure 36.6. Notice that the highly iterative interdependencies are depicted via an N2 (N N matrix) diagram. When you develop the architectures, it is very important for you to maintain traceability with the Contract Statement of Work (CSOW), Contract Work Breakdown Structure (CWBS), Integrated Master Plan (IMP), and Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) or their contract documents.
36
System Architecture Development
Author s Note 36.1 The point here is that architecture development encompasses more than simply creating graphical views of the system. The architectural description serves as the cornerstone for the CWBS, IMP, and IMS. It must also be consistent with the CSOW. As system development progresses through lower levels of design over time, architectural attributes such as capabilities or operations, requirements, performance budgets and safety margins, and design and construction constraints are allocated to lower level architecture entities and owed down via entity item development speci cations. Referral For more information about developing speci cations, refer to 31 Speci cation Development Practices.
Closing Points
One of the ambiguities of SE and de ciencies of organizational training or the lack thereof occurs when system architectures are developed. You may hear a development team member boldly proclaim they are going to develop a system architecture. The problem is listeners are thinking one type of architecture and the doer has a pet architecture. As a result, the architectural work product may or may not suit the development team s needs. One way to avoid this situation is to express the four domain solutions in terms of views. As each solution is formulated as illustrated in Figure 36.6, the team has a good idea of WHAT the deliverable architecture will depict. So, when someone boldly PROCLAIMs to be developing a system architecture, ASK: WHICH architectural views and viewpoints do you intend to EXPRESS. Guidepost 36.2 Given a fundamental understanding in WHAT an architecture and architectural description are, we now shift our focus to key considerations that drive selection of the type of architecture suitable for a system, product, or service application.
36.4 CENTRALIZED VERSUS DECENTRALIZED CONTROL ARCHITECTURES
Once a system s interfaces are identi ed, most system architecture development activities begin with HOW the system is structured for communications and decision-making. Figure 36.7 serves as a reference for our discussion. s 8 through 12 System Architecture Concepts discussed system interactions with its OPERATING ENVIRONMENT. The discussion highlighted various types of command and control (C2) interactions that included open loop and closed loop systems. For the C2 mechanism, a key question is: HOW do we ef ciently and effectively implement C2 This requires a determination of the need for a centralized versus decentralized or distributed control architectures. So, what are these
Centralized Control Architectures
Centralized control architectures, as illustrated on the LEFT side of Figure 36.7, consist of a single processing mechanism. For most applications the mechanism interfaces to remote access ports or sensors via mechanical, electronic, or optical types of devices. Consider the following examples:
36.4 Centralized Versus Decentralized Control Architectures
Centralized Architecture
Command and Control and Transformational Processing
Decentralized Architecture
Command and Control and Transformational Processing RFS_A #1 Control Control Capability Capability A A
RFS_A #1 RFS_A #2 RFS_B #1 RFS_B #2 Centralized Centralized Control Capability Control Capability
Control Capability A Control Capability A Control Capability B Control Capability B Control Capability C Control Capability C