OODBMS History and Concepts in Java

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OODBMS History and Concepts
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Design, Objectivity, and Versant Object Technology (ObjectStore, Objectivity/DB, and Versant ODBMS, respectively) followed soon after. Compared to the first generation of OODBMSs, all the second-generation systems used a client/server architecture and a common platform: C++, X Windows, and UNIX workstations. The first product of the third generation, Itasca, was released in August 1990, only a few months after the release of second-generation OODBMSs. Itasca was a commercial version of Orion, a project developed by the Microelectronics and Computer Corporation (MCC), a research institute based in Austin, Texas, and financed by a number of American hardware manufacturers. The other third-generation OODBMSs were O2, produced by the French company Alta r, and Zeitgeist, a system developed internally by Texas Instruments. Though first-generation OODBMSs can be considered as extensions of object-oriented languages that is, they typically extend such languages with database capabilities, adding things like transactions, for example third-generation systems can be defined as DBMSs with advanced characteristics (e.g., version support) and with data definition and data manipulation languages that are object-oriented and computationally complete. Beyond the technical differences in architectures and functionalities, third-generation DBMSs are the result of long-term research projects run by large organizations who sought to capitalize on their investments. Therefore, they are very advanced systems from the viewpoint of both database technology and software development environments. The beginning of OODBMSs was thus characterized by the development of a large number of systems, most of which were produced by small vendors. These systems were revolutionary with respect to previous DBMSs in that they were built from scratch with a different code base and a different data model. In this initial period, the research community felt the need to at least define what an OODBMS was. Thus, in 1989, the Object-Oriented Database System Manifesto [Atkinson 1989] was published. This document describes the main features and characteristics that a system must have to qualify as an OODBMS.
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The OODBMS panorama at the beginning of the 1990s was characterized by a quite a large number of systems that lacked a common data model, and whose use in applications was still at the experimental stage. One of the reasons for the slow growth in OODBMSs was the resistance by customers and companies to migrate to new technologies. However, a common feeling within the OODBMS community was that the lack of an object database standard was the major limitation that prevented their widespread use. The success of RDBMSs did not simply result from a higher level of data independence and a simpler data model than previous systems, but also from the standardization they offered. The SQL standard offers a high degree of portability and interoperability between systems, simplifies learning new RDBMSs, and represents a wide endorsement of the relational approach. All these factors are important for OODBMSs as well. Actually, these factors are even more important for OODBMSs, because companies that develop most products in this area are young, small companies; portability and endorsement of the approach are thus essential to customers. In addition, the scope of OODBMSs is more far-reaching than that of RDBMSs, because
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OODBMSs integrate the programming language and the database system, and encompass all of an application's operations and data. The ODMG (Object Database Management Group) consortium was formed the summer of 1991 in response to the ]lack of an existing standards body working on OODB standards, and as a way to help the small OODB vendors gain a foothold in the competitive database marketplace. The primary role of this group was to develop a set of standards that would allow an OODBMS customer to write portable applications; that is, applications that could run on more than one OODBMS. ODMG member companies represented almost the entire OODBMS industry. This standardization effort falls within the common effort of promoting the definition of standards for the objectoriented world. ODMG is affiliated with the Object Management Group (OMG), established in 1989, and tried to benefit as much as possible from the work deve]oped by that group. The main contribution of OMG has been the definition of the CORBA architecture for distributed object systems interoperability. Since OODBMSs provide an architecture for developing applications that is significantly different from RDBMSs, the nature of the standard is also substantially different. Rather than providing only a high-level language such as SQL for data manipulation, an OODBMS transparently integrates database capability with an application programming language. Thus, in contrast to RDBMSs, OODBMSs require standards based on integration with existing programming languages. OODBMSs have been integrated with C++, C, Smalltalk, and LISP. Overlap with the RDBMS standard only concerns the query language component of the standard. The ODMG standard was first released in 1993, followed by release 1.2 of the standard, published in a book [Cattell 1996]. The ODMG standard included a reference Object Model (ODMG Object Model), an Object Definition Language (ODL), and an Object Query Language (OQL). Moreover, it defined the C++ and Smalltalk programming language bindings for ODL and data manipulation. The ODMG Object Model specifies the standard data model for object-oriented databases, and ODL is the Data Definition Language (DDL) that is provided to define an object database schema according to that model. OQL is a declarative query language, strongly inspired by the SQL query language, whereas the language bindings specify how the object model concepts are mapped into the considered languages, and how ODMG objects can be accessed and manipulated by the Languages. The ODMG object model was defined as a superset of the OMG object model, and ODL extended the OMG IDL (Interface Definition Language).
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