Object-Relational DBMSs in Java

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Object-Relational DBMSs
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Object-relational DBMSs (ORDBMSs) provide an alternative approach to using objects with a database system. Whereas OODBMSs represented a revolutionary approach in that they turned object-oriented programming languages into DBMSs, object-relational DBMSs took an evolutionary approach, integrating objects with the relational data model and extending existing RDBMSs with object-oriented features. The two approaches strongly conflicted in the early 1990s: one group proposed extensions to object-oriented languages (the pure OODB approach) and the other stated that we should start with relational databases and add OO extensions (the hybrid approach). Now they seem much more convergent.
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OODBMS History and Concepts
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The idea of object-relational DBMSs dates back to 1990 when the Third Generation Database System Manifesto [Stonebraker 1990] was published as a response to the Object-Oriented Database System Manifesto. The basic premise of the Manifesto was that new (third) generation DBMSs must be able to handle objects and rules, and must be compatible with second-generation (that is, relational!) DBMSs. In the same year that the Manifesto was published, UniSQL, Inc. was founded by Won Kim, one of the designers of the Orion OODBMS. UniSQL produced the UniSQL Object-Relational DBMS, which used SQL/X, an extension of SQL-92, as the database language. In the 1990s there was intense research and experimentation with object-relational DBMSs. The early object-relational vendors were start-up companies that included, in addition to UniSQL, Illustra and Omniscience. In 1996 Informix acquired Illustra, and all the other major database vendors (Sybase, IBM, and Oracle) began moving toward objectrelational products. Then, a consensus on the object-relational data model features emerged in the SQL-3 standard [Mattos 1996] and all the major database vendors (Informix, Sybase, IBM, and Oracle) have released object-relational products that reflect this consensus. Object-re]ational DBMSs extend the traditional relational database model to include the object-oriented benefits of encapsulation, polymorphism, and inheritance. These systems are relational because they support SQL; they are object-oriented because they support complex data. In some sense they represent a marriage between SQL from the relational world and the modeling primitives from the object world. The main motivation that has pushed the development of these systems is the feeling that RDBMSs satisfy the requirements only of applications that handle "simple data with complex queries." Object-relational DBMSs offer good performance, support concurrent access to data, and provide access control and reliability. OODBMSs, by contrast, allow you to manage complex data, but they do not offer adequate associative query support ("complex data with simple queries") and they do not provide, at the same level of adequacy, many of the data management functions provided by RDBMSs, such as authorization, concurrency control, and recovery. The goal of object-relational systems was thus to support RDBMS functions efficiently with respect to traditional data handling, and at the same time to extend the data model so that complex data can be handled as well. Moreover, users of object-relational DBMSs will not suffer migration problems, since backward compatibility and handling of legacy data is ensured. During the 1990s, both the quality of DBMS functions offered by OODBMS products and their support for declarative query facilities improved, and this is the reason why OODBMSs and ORDBMSs converged. For example, the OQL query language is very similar to the SQL-3 query language. In addition to their different beginnings, some strong differences also persist between the two database technologies. First, OODBMSs provide persistence to objects created in languages such as Java, C++, and Smalltalk. Programmers define new types or classes of objects in these languages (employing any data structures they care to code) and create instances of these classes. Using the DBMS mechanisms, these objects can be stored and shared. As a result, OODBMSs are highly flexible, supporting a wide range of structures and types. They can be thought of as an extension of an object-oriented programming environment, since the integration with the programming language is almost seamless. This approach differs from object-relational DBMSs, which introduce a separate API (based on SQL) to work with stored data. When using ORDBMSs, class definitions must be
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