3: PHOTODEFORMABLE MATERIALS AND PHOTOMECHANICAL EFFECTS in Java

Print qr-codes in Java 3: PHOTODEFORMABLE MATERIALS AND PHOTOMECHANICAL EFFECTS
CHAPTER 3: PHOTODEFORMABLE MATERIALS AND PHOTOMECHANICAL EFFECTS
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9a: R = H, x = 6 9b: R = CH3, x = 6 9c: R = CH3, x = 3
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Figure 3.12. LCE lms with a (a) splayed or (b) twisted molecular alignment. a0 and ae indicate perpendicular and parallel coef cients of thermal expansion. Source: Mol et al., 2005.
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(Components 11a,b) and a nonmesogenic group that acts as a reactive site for cross-linking. Fibers were drawn from a melt of the polymer and a cross-linker, 4,4u-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI). The bers that were formed showed high LC alignment when observed by polarizing optical microscopy. The thermoelastic response exhibited strain changes through the nematic isotropic phase transition of B35%. A retractive force of nearly 300 kPa was also observed in the isotropic phase. Yusuf et al. (2004a,b, 2003) investigated the swelling behavior of the LCE lms in LMWLCs. Figure 3.15 shows the shape changes of dry LCEs during heating and cooling processes of planar and homeotropic samples. The planar sample contracted parallel to the director and expanded perpendicular to the director upon heating. The homeotropic sample expanded on heating. All samples reverted to their initial shapes upon cooling. Furthermore, the swelling behavior of both polydomain and monodomain LCE lms was studied. Polydomain LCEs swell equally in all three dimensions, whereas monodomain LCEs swell isotropically only in two dimensions, but not in three dimensions. Another useful property of LCEs is that their shape changes by applied electric elds, electromechanical responses, owing to reorientation effects induced by electric eld. Zentel rst found tiny changes of LCEs swollen in LMWLCs under large elds in 1986 (Zentel, 1986). Subsequently, Barnes et al. (1989) observed 20% contraction of polydomain elastomers swollen in an isotropic LMWLC. Kishi et al.
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3.4. PHOTODEFORMABLE MATERIALS BASED ON AZOBENZENE CONTAINING LCs
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CH3 CH3 CH3 H3C Si O Si O Si CH3 CH3 H CH3 60 10a
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4.0 3.5 3.0 L /Liso 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.8 0.9 T/Tred 1.0 1.1 = 8.6 103N/m2 = 14.8 103N/m2 = 27.1 103N/m2
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Figure 3.13. Thermoelastic response of an LCE prepared from Components 10a c. s: mechanical eld; L: length of the network in the nematic state; Liso: length of the network in the isotropic state; Tred: reduced temperature. Source: Wermter and Finkelmann, 2001.
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(1994) then reported quantitative results on shape changes of swollen polydomain LCEs under a dc electric eld (0.3 V/mm). Recently, Courty et al. (2003) demonstrated a fairly large electromechanical effect in an LCE embedded with carbon nanotubes, but needed a large applied eld (1 V/mm). Furthermore, Yusuf et al. (2005) reported measurable shape changes (a maximum 13% contraction) in LCEs swollen with an LMWLC under small elds (0.01 1 V/mm). Kremer and coworkers developed a new material that showed high and fast strains of 4% by electrostriction under a much lower applied electric eld (by two orders of magnitude) than those reported previously. It consists of ultrathin ferroelectric LCE lms, which exhibited 4% strain at only 1.5 MV/m (Fig. 3.16; Lehmann et al., 2001). The thinning of the lm by 4% in the ferroelectric LCE corresponds to an electrically induced tilt angle (electroclinic effect) of y=161 in the sample cosine model.
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CHAPTER 3: PHOTODEFORMABLE MATERIALS AND PHOTOMECHANICAL EFFECTS
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External stimulus Temperature Cross-linker Liquid crystal units Anisotropic contraction/elongation
Figure 3.14. LCEs with laterally attached side-chain mesogens and their deformation behavior. Source: Naciri et al., 2003.
Broer and coworkers proposed pH- or water-controlled actuators based on two simple concepts: an aligned LC network, consisting of both covalent and secondary bonds, and stimulus-controlled molecular switching between acidic and neutral states (Fig. 3.17; Harris et al., 2005a). The uniaxially aligned lm responded equally to water or pH in all regions of the lm and only elongated by a small amount when exposed to a uniform stimulus. Differences in the pH value or humidity of the upper and lower surfaces induced a large degree of bending of the lm. The twisted and splayed con gurations do not require environmental gradients to produce macroscopic motion. In both cases, the preferred expansion directions on the opposite surfaces of a lm were offset by 901, and a uniform stimulus resulted in expansion gradients over the thickness of the lm and bending behavior similar to thermal deformation in a metallic bilayer.