INTRODUCTION in Java

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2.1. INTRODUCTION
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Figure 2.2. Types of azobenzene-containing materials used for photoinduced generation of anisotropy and mass transport: (a) guest host system, (b) azobenzene-containing side-chain polymer, (c) lm-forming low-molecular-weight azobenzene derivatives, and (d) supramolecular (H- or ionic bound) azobenzene complexes.
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present a cost-effective solution, but the restricted azobenzene solubility, phase separation, and molecular aggregation due to pp stacking limit the loading level and the ef ciency, respectively. With regard to mass transport, some authors explain poor SRG-forming properties of guest host materials with the argument that nontethered azobenzenes cannot transfer the translational motion to the matrix, and in this way, a migration of the polymer chain could not take place or is strongly restricted. The widely accepted conclusion is that covalent bonding between the photoactive group and the inactive matrix polymer is required for ef cient induction process and stable SRG. Therefore, a large variety of azobenzene-functionalized polymers with different chemical structure, molecular weight, glass transition temperature, and azobenzene content have been investigated (see Natansohn and Rochon, 2002; 4 of this book). Almost all of them undergo the photoorientation and light-driven mass transport; the ef ciency of the processes is being strongly affected by the above-mentioned parameters of the polymers. Especially sidechain azobenzene-containing polymers have been shown as very effective materials for photoorientation and SRG formation. Multistep syntheses are required to manufacture such functionalized polymers from commercially available chemicals, and consequently, they are expensive. The exact control of polarity, molecular weight, glass transition temperature, and viscosity are rather dif cult in such polymers, and reproducibility is a problem. The availability and variety of speci cally functionalized structures is strongly limited. Moreover, the puri cation and the solubility of the polymers are dif cult problems. Restricted solubility requires using environmentally nonfriendly organic solvents. Therefore, a number of activities to develop alternatives to glassy functionalized polymers were pursued. There are only few examples for the induction of permanent anisotropy in bulk lms of neat azobenzenes (Tanino et al., 2007; Ishow et al., 2006; Presnyakov et al., 2006; Shirota, 2005; Ando et al., 2003; Chigrinov et al., 2003, 2002; Nakano et al., 2002; Perschke and Fuhrmann, 2002; Stracke et al., 2000; Utsumi
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CHAPTER 2: SUPRAMOLECULAR AZOBENZENE MATERIALS
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et al., 2000; Shirota et al., 1998; Klima and Waniek, 1957). If the crystallization can be suppressed, the induction of anisotropy is possible in lms of lowmolecular-weight azobenzene derivatives (Fig. 2.2). Surprisingly, SRG formation in a single crystal of 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene was reported (Nakano et al., 2002). Low-molecular-weight glass-forming systems are an alternative to functionalized polymers (Tanino et al., 2007; Ishow et al., 2006; Presnyakov et al., 2006; Shirota, 2005; Ando et al., 2003; Chigrinov et al., 2002, 2003; Nakano et al., 2002; Perschke and Fuhrmann, 2002; Stracke et al., 2000; Utsumi et al., 2000; Shirota et al., 1998; Klima and Waniek, 1957). Sterically hindered bulky azobenzenecontaining molecules are a new family of functionalized materials that form amorphous lms by spin coating and vacuum deposition without any dilution of the system. Such materials are free from polymer chains and any restricting entanglement of the backbone. The results indicate that the existence of a polymer chain is not a necessary condition for induction of anisotropy and SRG formation. The bulky structure of the molecules is a necessary condition to prevent the crystallization and ensure lm-forming properties. Moreover, the glass transition of the materials is rather low, leading to low stability of the photoinduced structures. As in the case of polymers, the alternative use of lowmolecular-weight glasses is also restricted by their speci c design and complicated synthesis. The bulky structure restricts the inducible anisotropy. In addition to amorphous glasses, there is one example for low-molecular-weight liquid crystalline glass-forming material (Stracke et al., 2000). Interestingly, that anisotropy and SRG, photoinduced in the glassy state of spin-coated lms at room temperature, were ampli ed by annealing in the mesophase. Industrial application of photoinduced anisotropy or light-induced SRG formation requires ful lling of a number of additional parameters. At rst the photochromic material has to be transferred in lms of good optical quality. This can be achieved using different materials as discussed above and by different methods of lm preparations, such as spin coating, doctor blading, Langmuir Blodgett, or layer-by-layer (LbL) techniques. In addition to the basic effects, a number of further requirements become important, such as the easy processing and handling of the lms. Especially lm-forming properties, use of good and environmental solvents, restriction of crystallization and aggregation, good optical quality of the lms before and after induction, stability of the photoinduced effects, and, of course, the price of the materials are very important requirements for any application. Moreover, the matrix can introduce speci c properties such as liquid crystallinity or further functionalization. Therefore, there is still a challenge to nd low cost systems capable of effective light-induced orientation and SRG formation. The supramolecular chemistry with its variety of intermolecular interactions can be seen as exactly right strategy in design of functional materials. According to the broad de nition by Lehn (1995), supramolecular chemistry is chemistry beyond the molecule. It is the chemistry of intermolecular bonds forming supramolecular complexes or phases. It may be divided into broad, partially
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