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Figure 9.24. Dynamic range of AMC for single-code and multicode HSDPA systems.
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Es/h0. The dynamic range of Es/h0 variation is usually over 20 dB, due to the Rayleigh fading. Observe that multicode operation allows a smaller granularity of the AMC and results in a smoother throughput curve. Furthermore, multicode operation allows the instantaneous throughput to vary over a wider dynamic range of Es /h0 (around 32 dB). 2. Fast Hybrid ARQ. The hybrid ARQ (HARQ) protocol adopted by the HSDPA system is a stop-and-wait protocol. The transmitter persistently transmits the current packet until it has been successfully received by the UE [indicated through the acknowledgment (ACK)]. In order to avoid resource idling (and therefore a waste) while waiting for the ACK, a maximum of eight parallel HARQ processes may be set up for the UE so that different HARQ processes transmit in different TTI (2 ms each). The control of HARQ is located at node B over the new MAC-hs layer so that storage of the unacknowledged data packets and the subsequent scheduling of retransmissions
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does not involve the RNC. Hence, Iub signaling (between node B and RNC) is avoided and the resulting retransmission delay in HSDPA is much lower than the conventional retransmission in the RNC (RLC layer).Typical retransmission delay in HSDPA is around 8 12 ms. The HSDPA concept supports two types of retransmission strategy: chase combining (CC) and incremental redundancy (IR). The basic idea of CC is to transmit an identical version of the erroneously detected data packet and then for the decoder to combine the soft information of the received copies weighted by the SNR prior to decoding. In the IR scheme, additional redundancy information is incrementally transmitted if the decoding fails in the rst attempt. In general, the IR scheme requires a lower SNR relative to the CC scheme at the same target BLER, but the disadvantage of the IR scheme is a higher memory requirement in the UE. Hence, the possibility of using IR scheme is de ned by the UE capability class. 3. Fast Scheduling. While the AMC and multicode transmission in HSDSCH allow a smooth link-level adaptation over a large dynamic range of SNR variation, fast scheduling is introduced in the MAC-hs residing in node B to facilitate multiuser selection diversity over the Rayleigh fading channels. The scheduling decisions as well as the packet buffers are located at node B, and no Iub signaling (between node B and RNC) is needed in HSDPA. Hence, the HS-DSCH can be assigned to one packet data user in 2-ms TTI resolution. This is shorter than the coherence time of most pedestrian users in the system; therefore, the microscopic fading remains quasistatic within a packet transmission. In HSDPA, three new channels are introduced in the physical layer as outlined below:
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High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH). This is the channel carrying user data over the downlink and thus is the major resource for the scheduling algorithm to manipulate. High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH). This is the channel carrying the physical layer control information over the downlink for several key purposes, including decoding, combining, and retransmission. High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH). This is an uplink channel carrying important control information such as ARQ acknowledgments (ACK) and the downlink channel quality indicator (CQI).
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Similar to the DSCH in UMTS Rel 99, there is always a low-data-rate downlink DCH associated with the HS-DSCH. While the HS-DSCH is shared by a number of UEs, the associated downlink DCH is dedicated per UE. Besides the downlink DCH, there is also an uplink HS-DPCCH (per UE) associated with the HS-DSCH in HSDPA. Figure 9.25 illustrates the multiuser fast scheduling concept in HSDPA. Node B tracks the channel quality of each active packet data users in the downlink direction by monitoring the transmit power
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