UMTS ARCHITECTURE in .NET

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core network is proposed in the UMTS Rel 5 to interface with both the PSTN and the public Internet. While the interface to the public Internet is straightforward, the interface of the circuit-switched voice service to the PSTN is done via VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) gateway. In addition, an IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) is added to interface with the GGSN in the CN. In the IMS, there are three components, namely the media resource function (MRF), call session control function (CSCF), and media gateway control function (MGCF). MRF is responsible for controlling media stream resources and the multiplexing of different media streams. CSCF is the gateway interfacing the GGSN and the IMS. CSCF is also used as a rewall separating the CN from other operators network. MCCF is responsible for handling protocol conversions. We shall not elaborate further on the core network operation as this is beyond the scope of this chapter. 9.2.1 Radio Interface
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The radio interface protocol architecture is shown in Figure 9.2. The protocol stack can be partitioned into two vertical planes: the control plane and the user plane. The control plane is responsible for the signaling, coordination, and control functions in call setup (both circuit switched and packet switched), call release, radio resource management, and session management as well as mobility management. The user plane is responsible for the user applications such as voice, videostreaming, and TCP/IP. In practice, the protocol layers above the physical layer are usually implemented in rmware and the proto-
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Figure 9.2. The radio interface protocol stack in UMTS.
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PACKET-SWITCHED DATA SERVICES IN W-CDMA SYSTEMS
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col layers in both planes coexist as concurrent threads or processes in the mobile phone. The upper protocol layers in both the user plane and the control plane are all supported by a common suite of lower layers, namely, the radio link control (RLC) layer, the medium access control (MAC) layer, and the physical layer (PHY).The RLC layer is responsible for offering logical channels to the upperlayer applications for both planes. For example, packet retransmission, segmentation, and reassembly are the primary services offered by the RLC layer. The MAC layer, is responsible for the multiplexing between the transport channels (offered by the physical layer) and the logical channels (offered to the RLC layer). The PHY layer is responsible for offering various transport channels to the MAC layer, based on various physical channels. It is responsible for the modulation, coding, spreading, power control, and multiplexing of packets from various transport channels into physical channels. Note that the RLC layer and the MAC layer terminate at the RNC while the PHY layer terminates at node B. In the user plane, user-speci c applications such as TCP/IP are interfaced to the logical channels offered by the RLC layer via the packet data convergent protocol (PDCP), which is responsible mainly for IP header compression. The PDCP layer terminates at the RNC; therefore, the IP header is regenerated at the RNC and delivered to the SGSN as a regular IP packet as illustrated in Figure 9.3. The IP layer in the user-speci c application terminates at the GGSN (transparent to the UTRAN), and the TCP layer is transparent to the UMTS network and the Internet. In the control plane, there are various upper-layer signaling protocols, namely, the radio resource manangement (RRC), the mobility management (MM), and the session management (SM). The RRC layer, which terminates at the RNC, is responsible for the radio-dependent resource management such
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Figure 9.3. UMTS user plane protocol architecture.
UMTS ARCHITECTURE
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Figure 9.4. UMTS control plane protocol architecture.
Channelization codes (SF)
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Figure 9.5. Channelization code and scrambling code in UMTS.
as outer-loop power control, soft handoff, admission control, overload control, and dynamic bearer recon guration. The MM and SM layers terminate at the core network and are responsible for the location area/routing area update as well as QoS management of the established sessions. This is illustrated in Figure 9.4.We shall elaborate the functions of the PHY layer, MAC layer, RLC layer, and RRC layer in the following sections. 9.2.2 PHY Layer
The PHY layer of UMTS is based on wideband CDMA technology. Speci cally, the user separation is based on hybrid deterministic CDMA1 and random CDMA approaches. In the downlink, each physical channel is spread using a channelization code and a scrambling code as illustrated in Figure 9.5. The channelization code is used for the actual spreading operation (bandwidth expansion) and is targeted for the separation of intracell users, whereas the scrambling code is used for the suppression of intercell interference.The downlink scrambling code is unique per cell. In the uplink, the physical channels
1 Deterministic CDMA refers to the case where the spreading codes between different users are completely orthogonal.