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Using the arrival of packets describing in gure 1, do part (a) and (b). Then using 2, repeat doing part (a) and (b). Is there any difference in these 2 examples in terms of packets delays (a) Compute the work progress of PGPS if f1 = 2f2. (b) Compute the work progress for WF2Q if f1 = 2f2. 3. Virtual Time Implementation of PGPS Virtual Time function is designed to track the work done in GPS system and this function can provide a good guide to the scheduler which packet to transmit rst. When a packet comes, it is stamped with its virtual nish time and the packet with the samllest virtual nish time departs rst. Denote the k-th packet of session i to be pik , the priority values of session i to be fi, the arrival time to be A(pik), the virtual start time and nish time to be Sik and Fik respectively. Lik is the length of the k-th packet and fi is the priority values of session i. The virtual time function V is de ned as follows, V (t i -1 + t ) = v(t i -1 ) + t , tleqt i - t i -1 fi
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Sik = max(V ( A( pik )), Sik -1 ) Fi k = Sik + Lk i fi
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(a) Explain the physical meaning of the priority values and how it affects the virtual time function. (b) Explain the formulation of the virtual time function. Why does this scheduling rule lead to proportional fairness (c) Using gure 1 as an example, Update the virtual time function for both users and decide which packet should depart rst. Justify the result. Assume each packet is of unit length and the users have equal priority.
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Engineers and practitioners have always been trying hard to utilize the elegant results from wireless communication research to produce high-quality systems that can meet the ever-increasing demands from consumers. Third-generation (3G) mobile communication systems are the most recent prominent examples. Speci cally, in 3G systems, channel-adaptive technologies are used to further boost the bandwidth ef ciency of the wireless spectra. As detailed in this chapter, high-performance channel-adaptive scheduling techniques are implemented in 3G systems to enable high-quality services to meet the heterogeneous demands of various diverse mobile applications such as videophone, multimedia messaging, and traditional voice services. We shall focus on the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) as an illustration. UMTS, which is a wideband CDMA (WCDMA) standard, can manifest in two different versions in pairing uplink and downlink: FDD (frequencydivision duplex) and TDD (time-division duplex). In the FDD mode (the paired spectrum mode due to the need of two 5-MHz-wide frequency bands for uplink and downlink), each physical channel consists of a unique code. In the TDD mode (the unpaired spectrum mode, so called because it needs only one 5-MHz-wide frequency band), each physical channel consists of a unique code and unique timeslots in a frame. Note that the chip rate in UMTS is 3.84 Mcps and the frame duration is 10 ms. The 10-ms frame is further divided into 15 slots. Thus, we have a total of 2560 chips per slot, leading to a symbol rate of 2560 symbols per slot. With a spreading factor ranging from 4 to 256 for an FDD uplink and from 4 to 512 for an FDD downlink, the channel symbol rate
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Channel-Adaptive Technologies and Cross-Layer Designs for Wireless Systems with Multiple Antennas: Theory and Applications. By V. K. N. Lau and Y.-K. R. Kwok ISBN 0-471-64865-5 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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ranges from 7500 symbols per second to 960 kilosymbols per second (ksym/s). On the other hand, the spreading factor in TDD mode ranges from 1 to 16 and thus, the channel symbol rate ranges from 240 ksym/s to 3.84 Msym/s. UMTS can support both circuit-switched connections (e.g., for conventional voice services) and packet-switched connections. Indeed, packet-switched connections are envisioned as the major driving force in the 3G market because such connections enable on-demand variable-rate application services (e.g., multimedia messaging, videophone, and location-based services) and are well suited for bursty sources. The scheduling actions in the early UMTS standard Rel 99 are located at the network (RNC). As will be elaborated in this chapter, the packet data scheduling in UMTS Rel 99 is based on a macroscopic timescale where the resources allocated to a data bearer are dynamically adjusted according to the source buffer status. For example, if there are 10 packet-switched data users in the cell, there will be a 10-packet-switched data-bearer setup and the radio resource assigned to these 10 data bearers will be dynamically adaptive to the individual buffer status. On one hand, when the buffer has plenty of packets, high-data-rate dedicated physical traf c channels will be set up for the data bearer. On the other hand, when the buffer is empty, the dedicated physical traf c channels associated with the data bearer will be released. As discussed in 6, this approach does not exploit the multiuser selection diversity; therefore, the bandwidth ef ciency is low. Nevertheless, the performance of the packet data services in UMTS Rel 99 is already far superior to that in GPRS or EDGE systems because of the faster data rates in the dedicated physical channels. To exploit the advantages of channel adaptation and multiuser selection diversity, the high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) scheme is incorporated in a more recent version of the UMTS standard Rel 5. The HSDPA system adopts a microscopic scheduling approach on the radio resource (timeslots/codes) for its serving active users over very short duty cycles (up to 2 ms). To facilitate the microscopic scheduling, the scheduling algorithm resides at the base station instead of the RNC to minimize the potential delay in the execution of scheduling. The base station obtains the instantaneous channel quality estimates from the mobiles (UEs) and selects one mobile (UE) to transmit on the high-data-rate shared-traf c channel at the current timeslot, based on a scheduling algorithm (which factors in system throughput, QoS requirements, fairness, or a combination of these). This is fundamentally different from the Rel 99 approach. For example, if there are 10 packet-switched data users in the cell, there will be one high-data-rate traf c channel shared dynamically between these 10 users in the HSDPA systems. In fact, it is shown that the microscopic scheduling approach in the HDSPA systems is theoretically optimal because of the multiuser selection diversity. In Section 9.2, we rst brie y introduce the key features of the UMTS architecture. For the ne details and complete speci cations, the reader is referred to the literature for some excellent texts and research articles:
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