AAA and Network Security for Mobile Access in .NET

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AAA and Network Security for Mobile Access
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L2 association beacon beacon CARD request CARD reply L2 connection L3 connection Mobile IP signaling CARD request CARD reply
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Figure 5.8 Determination of target AR for handover with the help of the CARD protocol. The MN interacts with its current AR (old AR) for CARD inquiries
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CARD protocol also allows the MN to perform the capability discovery and the L2 translation through interaction with its current AR. In that case, the current AR in turn contacts the candidate ARs on behalf of the MN. The current AR may have mechanisms to acquire the capability information for its neighbors in a manner that is not on the time-critical path for the MN handover signaling. The CARD protocol suggests a mechanism for this as well. When the capabilities of all the CARs are collected, a selection algorithm is deployed to determine the best candidate, which in CARD terminology, is called the target access router (TAR). When the MN finds out that the TAR is different from its current AR, it needs to perform Mobile IP signaling with the TAR to complete the layer-3 handover.
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The CARD protocol provides several other neat features as well. For instance, the MN can ask its current AR (we called this Old AR) to screen some of the candidate ARs for the MN to see whether their capabilities match the MN s minimum requirements. The CARD protocol calls this process capability pre-filtering and provides several options that can be carried out by the CARD request and reply messages to perform pre-filtering. For instance, an MN may have only an IEEE 802.11b interface card available and hence signals to the current AR that it can only connect to CARs that offer 802.11b services. Another example is that the MN can only connect to CARs that can satisfy a specific QoS level. The MN can signal its requirements and preferences by adding the so-called requirement and preference sub-options to the CARD request that it sends to its current AR. The reader is referred to the IETF specifications for more details [CARDDRF].
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5.3.2 Context Transfer
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As mentioned earlier, to minimize the period of disruption that the user experiences during a handover, some optimizations, such as fast and low-latency handovers, were on Mobile IP
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Introduction to Internet Mobility Protocols
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procedures. However, as mentioned earlier, these methods simply attempted to re-establish the layer-3 forwarding paths quicker. They did nothing for the re-establishment of network services, such as security or QoS treatment at the new point of attachment. When the MN is using a network feature such as QoS treatment for its packets, the network maintains some state relating to these features. These states are abstracted into what is called the MN s context. When the MN moves to a new network, the new network must recreate the states for a variety of features (context) to be able to provide the service to the MN after the handover and in a consistent manner. This is where context transfer comes in. Even though designing an efficient and secure context transfer process is a tricky job, the basic motivation for context transfer is rather simple: When the MN moves to a new network, if the mobile s context is transferred to the new network, the features can easily be installed in the network and if done in a time-efficient manner, the user s session can continue seamlessly following or even during the handover. Hence the context transfer is defined as follows: Context transfer is a process by which the old point of attachment transmits the feature states related to the MN to the new point of attachment, so that the MN and the new point of attachment do not have to engage in additional signaling (following the completion of handover signaling) to re-establish these features. It should be noted that, initially, there was controversy over which entity would be responsible for the context transfer, since it is not always the case that the point of attachment (which may even be a dumb device) is the entity that holds the states. There were debates on whether the context transfer should be between more centralized management entities at each of the networks or between layer-2 APs or layer 3-ARs. Finally, it was decided that the context transfer would be performed between layer-3 entities at the edge of the network (ARs). This would, however, require that the state would have to be present at the AR prior to the context transfer. There have been several proposals for context transfer, some of which (such as TEXT [TEXTDR]) have tried to accomplish simultaneous context transfer and traffic forwarding even during the handover. Finally, the IETF seamless mobility working group [SEAMOBY] came up with an experimental specification of a context transfer protocol (CTP) [CTP3374] that is a waiting RFC status at the time of writing. As mentioned earlier, there could be many different network services (features in context transfer terminology) that have to be performed for the applications that the mobile user is running. Each of these features is defined by a specific protocol. For instance, if header compression is deployed on the packet headers, the robust header compression (Rohc) protocol may be used for this purpose. The context that would allow header compression operation to run seamlessly on a new processing entity within the new network would also have to be defined by the specifics of Rohc. In a similar manner, a QoS service that is deployed through a QoS-specific protocol needs to define its own feature-specific context. For handover, this would mean the context for each of these features must be transferred to the new AR and from there be forwarded to the entity that is responsible for processing that feature. Since each of these protocols is standardized by other standard authorities such as other groups in IETF, it is up to those standard authorities to define the exact context for the feature that their protocol provides. For instance, the working group responsible for the QoS protocol would have to standardize exactly which states could be transferred to establish QoS provisioning services at the new AR.
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